Extinct Plants and Red AlgaeGlobally Extinct: Plants and Red Algae

This page features the plants and red algae that have become recently extinct. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2011.1) has listed 87 species and 10 subspecies and varieties of plants and red algae (IUCN 2011).

The addition of the Bennett's Seaweed (Vanvoorstia bennettiana), a species of red algae (phylum Rhodophyta), to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2003 is unfortunate because at that time it was considered the representative of an entire kingdom (Protista) that enters the IUCN Red List as Extinct. However, this addition represented an important first attempt at documenting the extinction of smaller life forms that are fundamental to the survival of life on this planet. (Millar 2003; Baillie et al. 2004) Meanwhile it is placed in the kingdom Plantae or plants (Millar, 2003).

The taxonomy of red algae is still in a state of flux and there is no consensus among scientists yet. If one defines the kingdom Plantae (plants) to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae will be part of that kingdom; but if Plantae are defined more narrowly, to be the Viridiplantae, then the red algae might be considered their own kingdom or part of the kingdom Protista. (Hwan Su Yoon et al. 2006; Lee 2008; Saunders & Hommersand 2004; Wikipedia contributors 2010) The Sixth Extinction Website follows the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and AlgaeBase and places the red algae in the kingdom of Plantae (IUCN 2010ab; IUCN 2011; Guiry & Guiry 2010).

Photo (upper): Saint Helena Olive (Nesiota elliptica) photographed by Rebecca Cairns-Wicks ©. The copyrighted photograph presented here may be freely used for any non-commercial purpose, but please credit the respective photographer. For commercial use, please contact the photographer directly.

Photo (lower): Bennett’s Seaweed (Vanvoorstia bennettiana) photographed by Alan J.K. Millar ©. The copyrighted photograph presented here may be freely used for any non-commercial purpose, but please credit the respective photographer. For commercial use, please contact the photographer directly.

Do you know any species or subspecies that should be added to this list or has been rediscoverd? If so, please contact this website.

 

Plants (Plantae)

The subjoined table shows the plant species, subspecies and varieties that recently became globally extinct.

Species (87)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Acalypha rubrinervis Unknown EX
Achyranthes atollensis Hawaii Chaff Flower EX
Adiantum lianxianense Unknown EX
Anonidium usambarense Unknown EX
Argyroxiphium virescens Unknown EX
Astragalus nitidiflorus Unknown EX
Begonia eiromischa Woolly-stalked Begonia EX
Blutaparon rigidum Unknown EX
Byttneria ivorensis Unknown EX
Campomanesia lundiana Unknown EX
Casearia quinduensis Unknown EX
Casearia tinifolia Unknown EX
Centaurea pseudoleucolepis Unknown EX EX
Chrysophyllum januariense Unknown EX
Clermontia multiflora Unknown EX
Cnidoscolus fragrans Unknown EX
Coffea lemblinii Unknown EX
Crudia zeylanica Sri Lanka Legume Tree EX
Cupaniopsis crassivalvis Unknown EX
Cyanea arborea Tree Cyanea EX
Cyanea comata Unknown EX
Cyanea cylindrocalyx Unknown EX
Cyanea dolichopoda Unknown EX
Cyanea giffardii Giffard's Cyanea EX
Cyanea marksii Mark's Cyanea EX
Cyanea pohaku Unknown EX
Cyanea pycnocarpa Unknown EX
Cyanea quercifolia Oakleaf Cyanea EX
Cynometra beddomei Unknown EX
Dipterocarpus cinereus Unknown EX
Dracaena umbraculifera Unknown EX
Dryopteris ascensionis Unknown EX
Erythrina schliebenii Unknown EX
Euphrasia mendoncae Unknown EX EX
Fitchia mangarevensis Unknown EX
Flabellidium spinosum Unknown EX
Galipea ossana Unknown EX
Gomidesia cambessedeana Unknown EX
Guettarda retusa Unknown EX
Hernandia drakeana Unknown EX
Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Kawaihae Hibiscadelphus EX
Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatus Unknown EX
Hibiscadelphus wilderianus Unknown EX
Hopea shingkeng Arunchal Hopea Tree EX
Ilex gardneriana Unknown EX
Ilex ternatiflora Unknown EX
Kokia lanceolata Unknown EX
Licania caldasiana Unknown EX
Madhuca insignis Unknown EX
Melicope cruciata Cross-bearing Pelea EX
Melicope haleakalae Unknown EX
Melicope obovata Obovate Melicope EX
Melicope paniculata Unknown EX
Myrcia skeldingii Unknown EX
Neisosperma brownii Unknown EX
Neomacounia nitida Unknown EX
Nesiota elliptica Saint Helena Olive EX
Ochrosia fatuhivensis Unknown EX
Ochrosia nukuhivensis Unknown EX
Ochrosia tahitensis Unknown EX
Oldenlandia adscenionis Unknown EX
Ormosia howii Unknown EX
Otophora unilocularis Unknown EX
Pausinystalia brachythyrsum Unknown EX
Pelea obovata Unknown EX
Pluchea glutinosa Unknown EX
Pouteria stenophylla Unknown EX
Pradosia argentea Unknown EX
Pradosia glaziovii Unknown EX
Pradosia mutisii Unknown EX
Psiadia schweinfurthii Unknown EX
Psidium dumetorum Unknown EX
Radula visiniaca Unknown EX
Santalum fernandezianum Unknown EX
Shorea cuspidata Unknown EX
Sporobolus durus Unknown EX
Stenocarpus dumbeensis Unknown EX
Sterculia khasiana Unknown EX
Streblorrhiza speciosa Unknown EX
Trochetiopsis melanoxylon Unknown EX
Valerianella affinis Unknown EX
Vanvoorstia bennettiana Bennett's Seaweed EX
Weinmannia spiraeoides Unknown EX
Wendlandia angustifolia Unknown EX
Wikstroemia skottsbergiana Skottsberg's Wikstroemia EX
Wikstroemia villosa Hairy Wikstroemia EX
Xanthostemon sebertii Unknown EX
Subspecies and varieties (10)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis Unknown EX
Chamaesyce celastroides var. tomentella Unknown EX
Chamaesyce remyi var. hanaleiensis Unknown EX
Clermontia peleana ssp. singuliflora Unknown EX EX
Commidendrum robustum ssp. gummiferum Unknown EX EX
Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii Unknown EX EX
Cyanea superba ssp. regina Superb Cyanae EX EX
Delissea undulata ssp. kauaiensis Undulata Delissea EX
Delissea undulata ssp. niihauensis Undulata Delissea EX
Ryania speciosa var. mutisii Unknown EX EX

 

References

Baillie, J.E.M., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N. (eds) (2004). 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. [Available via http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/html/Red%20List%202004/completed/cover.html].

Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2010). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 August 2010.

Hwan Su Yoon, K. M. Müller, R. G. Sheath, F. D. Ott & D. Bhattacharya (2006). "Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta)" (PDF). Journal of Phycology 42: 482–492. doi:10The taxonomy of red algae is still in a state of flux and there is no concensus among scientists yet. If one defines the kingdom Plantae (plants) to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae will be part of that kingdom; but if Plantae are defined more narrowly, to be the Viridiplantae, then the red algae might be considered their own kingdom or part of the kingdom Protista. (Hwan Su Yoon et al. 2006; Lee 2008; Saunders & Hommersand 2004; Wikipedia contributors 2010) The Sixth Extinction Website follows the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and AlgaeBase and places the red algae in the kingdom of Plantae (IUCN 2010; Guiry & Guiry 2010)..1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00210.x.

IUCN (2010a). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 15 August 2010.

IUCN (2010b). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 November 2010.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 June 2011.

Lee, R.E. (2008). Phycology, 4th edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521638838.

Millar, A.J.K. (2003). Vanvoorstia bennettiana. In: IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 15 August 2010.

Saunders, G.W. & M. H. Hommersand (2004). Assessing red algal supraordinal diversity and taxonomy in the context of contemporary systematic data. American Journal of Botany 91: 1494–1507. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1494.

Wikipedia contributors (2010), 'Red algae', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 August 2010, 20:16 UTC, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Red_algae&oldid=379098825> [accessed 15 August 2010].

 

Citation: Maas, P.H.J. (2011). Globally Extinct: Plants and Red Algae. In: TSEW (). The Sixth Extinction Website. <http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct>. Downloaded on .
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Updated: 25 June 2011

 

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