The Most Recent Extinctions

While little has been documented about most historic extinctions, much more information is available on species that have been lost over the past few decades. This page lists (although incomplete) a selection of extinctions over the past centuries to provide greater insight into patterns of recent extinction and to highlight those species, subspecies and varieties that have most recently disappeared. The number of documented extinctions, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (version 2013.1) 709 species and 17 subspecies and varieties since the year 1500 CE, grossly under represents the true number of extinctions that have taken place in historic times, due to very incomplete and uneven sampling, both geographically and taxonomically.

The last occurences of the animals listed here are based on historical records1, and when these are not available on radiometric or radiocarbon dates (calibrated 14C age dates)2 and archaeoological or stratigraphic associations3.

Extinctions in the 21st century (2000 - Present)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Chelonoidis abingdoni Pinta Island Tortoise 24 June 2012 Edwards et al. (2013)
Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus Vietnamese Rhinoceros 29 April 2010 Brook et al. (2011)
Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island Pipistrelle 27 August 2009 Lumsden et al. (2009)
Psephurus gladius  Chinese Paddlefish 8 January 2007 Gao et al. (2009)
Lipotes vexillifer  Yangtze River Dolphin pre-2006 (19 August 2007?)4 Turvey (2009), Turvey (2008), WWF (2007)
Melamprosops phaeosoma Po'o-uli 28 November 2004 Tyrberg (2009), BirdLife International (2010b)
Nesiota elliptica Saint Helena Olive December 2003 IUCN (2011)
Partula labrusca  Vine Raiatea Tree Snail 2002 Coote (2007)
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica  Pyrenean Ibex 6 January 2000 (&January 2009)5 Caprinae Specialist Group (2000)
Extinctions in the 20th century (1900 - 1999)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Crudia zeylanica Sri Lanka Legume Tree 1998 IUCN (2011); Maricar (2009)
Hemignathus lucidus Nukupuu 1998 Tyrberg (2009)
Diceros bicornis longipes Western Black Rhinoceros 1997 (pre-2006?)6 Emslie & Brooks (1999)
Rhachistia aldabrae Aldabra Banded Snail 1997 Gerlach (2006), Gerlach (2007)
Panthera pardus adersi Zanzibar Leopard 1996 Goldman & Walsh (2002)
Partula turgida Swollen Raiatea Tree Snail 1 January 1996 Cunningham & Daszak (1998)
Incilius periglenes Golden Toad 1989 Pounds et al. (2008)
Podilymbus gigas Atitlan Grebe 1986 Tyrberg (2009)
Tachybaptus rufolavatus Alaotra Grebe September 1985 Tyrberg (2009), BirdLife International (2010c)
Rheobatrachus vitellinus Eungella Gastric-brooding Frog March 1985 Hero et al. (2004), McDonald (1990)
Moho braccatus Kaua'i 'O'o 1985 (1987?) Tyrberg (2009)
Crocidura trichura Christmas Island Shrew 1985 (1998?) Lumsden & Schulz (2008)
Pomarea mira Ua Pou Monarch 1985 Tyrberg (2009)
Gambusia amistadensis Amistad Gambusia 1984 Miller et al. (1989)
Rheobatrachus silus Conondale Gastric-brooding Frog November 1983 Tyler & Davies (1985)
Gambusia georgei San Marcos Gambusia 1983 Miller et al. (1989)
Myadestes myadestinus Kama'o 1983 (1989?) Tyrberg (2009)
Myiagra freycinet Guam Flycatcher 1983 Tyrberg (2009)
Nesillas aldabrana Aldabra Warbler 1983 Tyrberg (2009)
Azurina eupalama Galapagos Damselfish 1982 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Banff Longnose Dace September 1981 Miller et al. (1989)
Anas oustaleti Marianas Mallard 1981 Tyrberg (2009)
Taudactylus diurnus Southern Day Frog 1979 Czechura & Ingram (1990)
Eurychelidon serintarea White-eyed River Martin 1978 (1986?) Tyrberg (2009)
Mesocapromys minimus Little Earth Hutia 1978 Turvey (2009)
Podiceps andinus Colombian Grebe  1977 Tyrberg (2009)
Pomarea fluxa Eiao Monarch 1977 Tyrberg (2009)
Panthera tigris sondaica Javan Tiger 1976 Nowell & Jackson (1996), Seidensticker (1986)
Hippopotamus laloumena Lesser Madagascan Hippopotamus 1976? Turvey (2009)
Hippopotamus lemerlei Madagascan Dwarf Hippopotamus 1976? Turvey (2009)
Hippopotamus madagascariensis Madagascan Pygmy Hippopotamus 1976? Turvey (2009)
Coregonus alpenae Longjaw Cisco 12 June 1975 Miller et al. (1989)
Bolyeria multocarinata Round Island Burrowing Boa  1975 Day (1981), Bauer & Günther (2004)
Notropis orca Phantom Shiner 1975 Miller et al. (1989)
Pteropus tokudae Guam Flying Fox  1974? Turvey (2009)
Hypolimnus pedderensis Lake Pedder Earthworm 1972 Blakenmore (2003)
Xenicus longipes Bush Wren 1972 Tyrberg (2009)
Cyprinodon arcuatus Santa Cruz Pupfish 1971 Miller et al. (1989)
Pieris brassicae wollastoni Madeiran Large White 1970s (1980s?) Van Swaay et al. (2009)
Panthera tigris virgata Caspian Tiger February 1970 (2001?)7 Can (2004), Driscoll et al. (2009)
Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae Tecopa Pupfish 2 February 1970 Miller et al. (1989)
Pogonichthys ciscoides Clear Lake Splittail 1970 Miller et al. (1989)
Sander vitreus glaucus Blue Pike 1970 Miller et al. (1989)
Coregonus nigripinnis Blackfin Cisco 26 November 1969 Miller et al. (1989)
Notropis amecae Ameca Shiner 21 April 1969 Miller et al. (1989)
Hemignathus ellisianus Greater Akialoa 1969 Tyrberg (2009), BirdLife International (2010a)
Epioblasma torulosa torulosa Tubercled-blossom Pearly Mussel 1969 USFWS (2010)
Callaeas cinerea cinerea South Island Kokako 1967 Tyrberg (2009)
Mystacina robusta Greater Short-tailed Bat 1967 Turvey (2009)
Gila bicolor isolata Independence Valley Tui Chub 3 April 1966 Miller et al. (1989)
Podarcis sicula sanctistephani Santo Stefano Lizard  1965 Day (1981)
Coregonus kiyi orientalis Lake Ontario Kiyi 19 September 1964 Miller et al. (1989)
Notropis simus simus Rio Grande Bluntnose Shiner 28 July 1964 Miller et al. (1989)
Coenocorypha iredalei South Island Snipe 1964 Tyrberg (2009)
Paroreomyza flammea Kakawahie 1963 Tyrberg (2009)
Cryptonanus ignitus Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum 1962 Turvey (2009)
Vermivora bachmanni Bachmann's Warbler 1962 (1988?) Tyrberg (2009)
Leucopeza semperi Semper's Warbler 1961 (1995?) Tyrberg (2009)
Notropis aulidion Durango Shiner 1961 Miller et al. (1989)
Lagorchestes asomatus Central Hare-wallaby 1960s Turvey (2009)
Perameles eremiana Desert Bandicoot 1960s Turvey (2009)
Empetrichthys latos concavus Raycraft Ranch Poolfish 1960 Miller et al. (1989)
Juscelinomys candango Brasilia Burrowing Mouse 1960 Turvey (2009)
Empetrichthys latos pahrump Pahrump Ranch Poolfish 1958 Miller et al. (1989)
Gila crassicauda Thicktail Chub 16 April 1957 Miller et al. (1989)
Onychogalea lunata Crescent Nailtail Wallaby 1956 Turvey (2009)
Pseudomys glaucus Blue-grey Mouse 1956 Turvey (2009)
Empetrichthys merriami Ash Meadows Poolfish 1955 Miller et al. (1989)
Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Maravillas Red Shiner 1954 Miller et al. (1989)
Coregonus johannae Deepwater Cisco 4 August 1952 Miller et al. (1989)
Monachus tropicalis Caribbean Monk Seal 1952 Turvey (2009)
Anodorhynchus glaucus Glaucous Macaw 1951 (1960?) Tyrberg (2009)
Gazella bilkis Queen of Sheba's Gazelle 1951 Mallon & Al-Safadi (2001)
Zalophus japonicus  Japanese Sea Lion 1951 Turvey (2009b)
Chaeropus ecaudatus Pig-footed Bandicoot 1950s Turvey (2009)
Discoglossus nigriventer Hula Painted Frog 1955 Papenfuss et al. (2004)
Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island Hutia 1950s Turvey (2009)
Macrotis leucura Lesser Bilby 1950s Turvey (2009)
Neotoma martinensis San Martin Island Woodrat 1950s Turvey (2009)
Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Pink-headed Duck 1949 Tyrberg (2009)
Merulaxis stresemanni Stresemann's Bristlethroat 1945 Tyrberg (2009)
Paracoelops megalotis Vietnam Leaf-nosed Bat 1945 Dorst (1947), Nowak (1999)
Porzana palmeri Laysan Crake 1944 Tyrberg (2009)
Lithobates fisheri Vegas Valley Leopard Frog 13 January 1942  Platz (1984)
Gallirallus wakensis Wake Rail 1942 Tyrberg (2009)
Panthera leo leo Barbary Lion 1942 (survives?)8 Yamaguchi and Haddane (2002)
Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Ostrich 1941 (1966?) Fuller (2000), Shirihai (1996)
Rhinichthys deaconi Las Vegas Dace 30 July 1940 Miller et al. (1989)
Orestias cuvieri Lake Titicaca Orestias 1940s Day (1981), Van den Hoek Ostende (1999)
Coregonus oxyrinchus Houting 1940 Freyhof & Schöter (2005)
Epioblasma arcaeformis Arc-form Pearly Mussel 1940 Bogan (2000)
Gallotia simonyi simonyi Roque Chico de Salmor Giant Lizard 1940 Carranza et al. (1999)
Pomarea nukuhivae Nukuhiva Monarch 1940 Tyrberg (2009)
Vanellus macropterus Javanese Lapwing 1940 Tyrberg (2009)
Nesoryzomys darwini Darwin's Galápagos Rice Rat pre-1940 Turvey (2009)
Macropus greyi Toolache Wallaby 1939 (1972?) Turvey (2009)
Rhinichthys osculus reliquus Grass Valley Speckled Dace 9 August 1938 Miller et al. (1989)
Lepidomeda altivelis Pahranagat Spinedace 1938 Miller et al. (1989)
Rucervus schomburgki Schomburgk's Deer 1938 Turvey (2009)
Turdus ravidus  Grand Cayman Thrush 1938 Tyrberg (2009)
Panthera tigris balica Bali Tiger 27 September 1937 Day (1981)
Thylacinus cynocephalus  Tasmanian Tiger 7 September 1936 Turvey (2009)
Columba jouyi Ryukyu Wood-pigeon 1936 Tyrberg (2009)
Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi Ratas Island Lizard 1934-1936 Zawadski (2010)
Caloprymnus campestris Desert Rat-kangaroo 1935 (1980s?) Turvey (2009)
Cerithidae fuscata Horn Snail 1935 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Moho nobilis Hawaii O'o 1934 (1957?) Tyrberg (2009)
Nesoryzomys indefessus Indefatigable Galápagos Rice Rat 1934 Turvey (2009)
Leporillus apicalis Lesser Stick-nest Rat 1933 (1970?) Turvey (2009)
Neotoma bunkeri Bunker's Woodrat 1931 Turvey (2009)
Peromyscus pembertoni Pemberton's Deer Mouse 1931 Turvey (2009)
Oncorhynchus clarki alvordensis Alvord Cutthroat Trout 1930s Miller et al. (1989)
Salvelinus agassizi Silver Trout 1930 Miller et al. (1989)
Lottia alveus Atlantic Eelgrass Limpet 1929 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Cottus echinatus Utah Lake Sculpin April 1928 Miller et al. (1989)
Equus hemionus hemippus Syrian Wild Ass 1928 Harper (1945), Day (1981)
Psephotus pulcherrimus Paradise Parrot 1927 Tyrberg (2009)
Chasmistes muriei Snake River Sucker 13 October 1927 Miller et al. (1989)
Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasian Wisent 1927 Puzek (ed.) (2002), Puzek (ed.) (2004)
Gallicolumba salamonis Thick-billed Ground-dove 1927 Tyrberg (2009)
Megapodius amissus Lost Megapode 1926? Tyrberg (2009)
Neotoma anthonyi Anthony's Woodrat 1926 Turvey (2009)
Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus Bubal Hartebeest 8714 Day (1981), Edwards (1996)
Aplonis fusca Norfolk Island Starling 1923 Tyrberg (2009)
Himatione freethii Laysan Honeyeater 1923 Tyrberg (2009)
Prototroctes oxyrhinchus New Zealand Grayling 1923 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Epioblasma flexuosa Arcuate Pearly Mussel 1920s-1930s Haag (2009)
Equus ferus ferus Tarpan 1918-1919 Kavar & Dovč (2008)
Conuropsis carolinensis Carolina Parakeet 21 February 1918 Tyrberg (2009), Fuller (2000)
Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Island Flycatcher 1918 Tyrberg (2009)
Phelsuma edwardnewtoni Rodrigues Day Gecko 1917 Vinson & Vinson (1969), Austin et al. (2004)
Ectopistes migratorius Passenger Pigeon 1 September 1914 Tyrberg (2009), Fuller (2000)
Sceloglaux albifacies Laughing Owl 1914 (1930?) Tyrberg (2009)
Dysmodrepanis munroi Lanai Hookbill 1913 (1918?) Tyrberg (2009)
Haematopus meadewaldoi Canary Islands Oystercatcher 1913 (1940?) Tyrberg (2009)
Zosterops strenuus Robust White-eye 1913 Tyrberg (2009)
Oceanodroma macrodactyla Guadalupe Storm-petrel 1911 Tyrberg (2009)
Oncorhynchus clarki macdonaldi Yellowfin Cutthroat 1910 (1930s?) Miller et al. (1989)
Quiscalus palustris Slender-billed Grackle 1910 Tyrberg (2009)
Lagostomus  crassus Peruvian Plains Viscacha pre-1910 Turvey (2009)
Heliangelus zusii Bogota Sunangel 1909 Tyrberg (2009)
Heteralocha acutirostris Huia 28 December 1907 Tyrberg (2009), Day (1981)
Drepanis funerea Black Mamo June 1907 Tyrberg (2009), Bryan (1908)
Psittacula wardi Seychelles Parakeet 1907 Tyrberg (2009)
Nyctimene sanctacrucis Nendö Tube-nosed Fruit Bat 1907? Turvey (2009)
Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Island Bellbird 1906 Tyrberg (2009)
Microgoura meeki Choiseul Pigeon 1905 Tyrberg (2009)
Turnagra capensis South Island Piopio 1905 Tyrberg (2009)
Moho bishopi Bishop's O'o 1904 (1981?) Tyrberg (2009)
Cyprinodon latifasciatus Parras Pupfish 1903 Miller et al. (1989)
Rattus macleari Maclear's Rat 1903 Turvey (2009)
Rattus nativitatis Bulldog Rat 1903 Turvey (2009)
Stypodon signifer Stumptooth Minnow 1903 Miller et al. (1989)
Mergus australis Auckland Island Merganser 1902 Tyrberg (2009)
Porphyrio paepae Marquesan Swamphen 1902? Tyrberg (2009)
Turnagra tanagra North Island Piopio 1902 Tyrberg (2009)
Loxops sagittirostris Greater amakihi 1901 Tyrberg (2009)
Notomys longicaudatus Long-tailed Hopping Mouse 1901 Turvey (2009)
Caracara lutosa Guadeloupe Caracara 1900 Tyrberg (2009)
Extinctions in the 19th century (1800 - 1899)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Eriocnemis godini Turquoise-throated Puffleg pre-1900 (1976) Tyrberg (2009)
Drepanis pacifica Hawaii Mamo 1899 (1960?) Tyrberg (2009)
Megalomys desmarestii Martinique Giant Rice Rat 1897 Turvey (2009)
Oryzomys nelsoni Nelson's Rice Rat 1897 Turvey (2009)
Rhodacanthis palmeri Greater Koa-finch 1896 Tyrberg (2009)
Notomys amplus Short-tailed Hopping Mouse pre-1896 Turvey (2009)
Moxostoma lacerum Harelip Sucker 1893 Miller et al. (1989)
Traversia lyalli Stephens Island Wren 1985 Tyrberg (2009)
Akialoa obscura Lesser Akialoa 1895 (1940?) Tyrberg (2009)
Porphyrio mantelli North Island Takahe 1894 Tyrberg (2009)
Psittirosta kona Kona Grosbeak 1894 Tyrberg (2009)
Eudorcas rufina Red Gazelle pre-1894 Turvey (2009)
Cabalus modestus Chatham Rail 1893 Tyrberg (2009)
Gallirallus sharpei Sharpe's Rail pre-1893 Tyrberg (2009)
Bowdleria rufescens Chatham Island Fernbird 1892 Tyrberg (2009)
Akialoa lanaiensis Maui Nui Akialoa 1892 Tyrberg (2009)
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica Portuguese Ibex 1892 Day (1981)
Ciridops anna Ula-ai-hawane 1892 Tyrberg (2009)
Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat 1892 Turvey (2009)
Rhodacanthis flaviceps Lesser Koa-finch 1891 Tyrberg (2009)
Gallirallus lafresnayanus New Caledonian Rail 1890 (1984?) Tyrberg (2009)
Gallirallus poecilopterus Bar-winged Rail 1890 (1970?) Tyrberg (2009)
Lagorchestes leporides Eastern Hare-wallaby 1890 Turvey (2009)
Leimacomys buettneri Togo Mouse 1890 Turvey (2009)
Pharotis imogene New Guinea Big-eared Bat 1890 Turvey (2009)
Fundulus albolineatus Whiteline Topminnow 27 May 1889 Miller et al. (1989)
Columba versicolor Bonin Wood-pigeon 1889 Tyrberg (2009)
Halcyon miyakoensis Miyako Kingfisher 1887 Tyrberg (2009)
Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe Long-eared Bat 1887 Turvey (2009)
Porzana sandwichensis Hawai'ian Crake 1884 (1893?) Tyrberg (2009)
Equus quagga quagga Quagga 12 August 1883 Hack et al. (2008), ZMA (2010)
Megalomys luciae St. Lucia Giant Rice Rat pre-1881 Turvey (2009)
Characodon garmani Parras Characodon 1880s Miller et al. (1989)
Gallirallus macquariensis Macquarie Island Rail 1880 Tyrberg (2009)
Pterodroma caribbaea Jamaica Petrel 1879 Tyrberg (2009)
Chlorostilbon bracei Brace's Emerald 1877 Tyrberg (2009)
Oryzomys antillarum Jamaican Rice Rat 1877 Turvey (2009)
Dusicyon australis Falkland Island Wolf 1876 Turvey (2009)
Camptorhynchus labradorius Labrador Duck 1875 (12 December 1878?) Tyrberg (2009)
Coturnix novaezelandiae New Zealand Quail 1875 Tyrberg (2009)
Potorous platyops Broad-faced Potoroo 1875 Turvey (2009)
Psittacula exsul Newton's Parakeet 1875 Tyrberg (2009)
Pteropus brunneus Dusky Flying Fox 1874 Turvey (2009)
Pteropus pilosus Large Palau Flying Fox pre-1874 Turvey (2009)
Gallinula nesiotis Tristan Moorhen 1873 Tyrberg (2009)
Pareudiastes pacifica Samoan Gallinule 1873 (1987?) Tyrberg (2009)
Argusianus bipunctatus Double-banded Argus 1871 Tyrberg (2009)
Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island Snipe 1870 Tyrberg (2009)
Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand Little Bittern 1870 Tyrberg (2009)
Pteropus subniger Lesser Mascarene Flying Fox 1870? Turvey (2009)
Ophrysia superciliosa Himalayan Quail 1868 (1877?) Tyrberg (2009)
Otus siaoensis Siau Scops Owl 1866 Tyrberg (2009)
Panthera leo melanochaitus Cape Lion 1865 Tefera (2003)
Lycaena dispar dispar British Large Copper 1864 Irwin (1984)
Ara tricolor Cuban Red Macaw 1864 (1876?) Tyrberg (2009)
Collisella edmitchelli Rocky Shore Limpet 1861 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Myotis insularum Samoan Myotis 1860s Turvey (2009)
Chlorostilbon elegans Gould's Emerald 1860 Tyrberg (2009)
Neovison macrodon Sea Mink 1860 (1894?) Turvey (2009)
Porphyrio kukwiedei New Caledonia Gallinule 1860? Tyrberg (2009)
Chaetoptila angustipluma Kioea 1859 Tyrberg (2009)
Charmosyna diadema New Caledonian Lorikeet 1859 (1976?) Tyrberg (2009)
Siphonorhis americana Jamaican Pauraque 1859 Tyrberg (2009)
Pseudomys gouldii Gould's Mouse 1857 Turvey (2009)
Pteropus allenorum Small Samoan Flying Fox 1856 Turvey (2009)
Nestor productus Norfolk Island Kaka 1851 Tyrberg (2009)
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pallas's Cormorant 1850 Tyrberg (2009)
Ara erythrocephala Red-headed Green Macaw 1847 Tyrberg (2009)
Conilurus albipes White-footed Rabbit-rat 1845 Turvey (2009)
Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmanian Emu 1845 (1873?) Dickison (1926), Le Souëf (1904)
Pinguinus impennis Great Auk 3 June 1844 (1852?) Tyrberg (2009), BirdLife International (2008)
Cyanoramphus zealandicus Black-fronted Parakeet 1844 Tyrberg (2009)
Notomys macrotis Big-eared Hopping Mouse 1843 Turvey (2009)
Aramides gutturalis Red-throated Wood-rail pre-1843 Tyrberg (2009)
Uperoleia marmorata Marbled Toadlet 1841 Hero, Roberts, & Horner (2004)
Cylindraspis indica Réunion Tortoise 1840s Cheke and Hume (2008)
Notomys mordax Darling Downs Hopping Mouse 1840s Turvey (2009)
Gallirallus dieffenbachi Dieffenbach's Rail 1840 Tyrberg (2009)
Littoraria flammea Periwinkle 1840 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Pteropus coxi Large Samoan Flying Fox 1840 Turvey (2009)
Anampses viridis Mauritius Green Wrasse 1839 Dulvy et al. (2009)
Hemiphaga spadicea Norfolk Island Pigeon 1839 Tyrberg (2009)
Fregilupus varius Réunion Starling 1838 Tyrberg (2009)
Akialoa ellisiana Oahu Akialoa 1837 (1940?) Tyrberg (2009)
Moho apicalis Oahu O'o 1837 Tyrberg (2009)
Coua delalandei Snail-eating Coua 1834 Tyrberg (2009)
Aplonis corvina Kosrae Starling 1828 Tyrberg (2009)
Chaunoproctus ferreorostris Bonin Grosbeak 1828 (1890?) Tyrberg (2009)
Porzana monasa Kosrae Crake 1828 Tyrberg (2009)
Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island Emu 1827 Tyrberg (2009)
Alectroenas nitidissima Mauritius Blue Pigeon 1826 Tyrberg (2009)
Aplonis mavornata Mysterious Starling 1825 Tyrberg (2009)
Gazella arabica Arabian Gazelle 1825 Mallon et al. (2001)
Myadestes woahensis Amaui 1825 Tyrberg (2009)
Pomarea pomarea Maupiti Monarch 1823 Tyrberg (2009)
Desmodus draculae Giant Vampire Bat pre-1820? Turvey (2009)
Dromaius ater King Island Emu 1802 Tyrberg (2009)
Boryptera alba Bory's White Bat 1801 Turvey (2009), Cheke and Hume (2008)
Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius Owl 1800-1850 Tyrberg (2009)
Ara erythrura Red-tailed Blue-and-Yellow Macaw 1800s Day (1981), Williams & Steadman (2001)
Isolobodon portoricensis Puerto Rican Hutia 1800s (1970s?) Turvey (2009)
Hippotragus leucophaeus Bluebuck 1800 Turvey (2009)
Extinctions in the 18th century (1700 - 1799)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Cylindraspis peltastes Rodrigues Domed Tortoise 1795 (1802?) Austin & Arnold (2001), Cheke and Hume (2008)
Cylindraspis vosmaeri Rodrigues Saddle-backed Tortoise 1795 (1802?) Austin & Arnold (2001), Cheke and Hume (2008)
Ara atwoodi Dominican Green-and-Yellow Macaw 1791 Tyrberg (2009)
Bison bonasus hungarorum Carpathian Wisent 1790 Puzek et al. (2002)
Columba vitiensis godmanae Lord Howe Pigeon 1790 Tyrberg (2009)
Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Swamphen 1790 Tyrberg (2009)
Mascarinus mascarinus Mascarene Parrot 1785 Tyrberg (2009)
Porzana nigra Tahiti Crake 1784 Tyrberg (2009)
Prosobonia cancellata Tuamotu Sandpiper 1778 Tyrberg (2009)
Gallirallus pacificus Tahiti Rail 1777 Tyrberg (2009)
Prosobonia ellisi Ellis's Sandpiper 1777 Tyrberg (2009)
Gallicolumba ferruginea Tanna Ground Dove 17 August 1774 Fuller (2000), Tyrberg (2009)
Cyanoramphus ulietanus Ra'iatea Parakeet 1774 Tyrberg (2009)
Prolagus sardus Sardinian Pika 1774 Turvey (2009)
'Turdus' ulietensis Ra'iatea Thrush 1774 Tyrberg (2009)
Prsobonia leucoptera White-winged Sandpiper 1773 Tyrberg (2009)
Trochetiopsis melanoxylon Unknown (plant) 1771 IUCN (2011)
Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaican Monkey 1769? Turvey (2009)
Hydrodamalis gigas Steller's Sea Cow 1768 Turvey (2009)
Ara gossei Jamaican Red Macaw 1765 Tyrberg (2009)
Psittacula bensoni Mauritius Grey Parrot 1764 Tyrberg (2009)
Necropsittacus rodericanus Rodrigues Parrot 1761 Tyrberg (2009)
Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues Solitaire 1754 (1761?) Tyrberg (2009)
Aratinga labati Guadeloupe Parakeet 1750 Tyrberg (2009)
Pausinystalia brachythyrsum Unknown (plant) 1746 IUCN (2011)
Amazona martinicana Martinique Parrot 1742 Tyrberg (2009)
Amazona violacea Guadeloupe Parrot 1742 Tyrberg (2009)
Ara guadeloupensis Lesser Antillean Macaw 1742 Tyrberg (2009)
Porphyrio coerulescens Réunion Gallinule 1734 Tyrberg (2009)
Aphanapteryx leguati Rodrigues Rail 1726 Tyrberg (2009)
Mascarenotus murivorus Rodrigues Owl 1726 Tyrberg (2009)
Necropsar rodericanus Rodrigues Starling 1726 Tyrberg (2009)
Nycticorax megacephalus Rodrigues Night-heron 1726 Tyrberg (2009)
Alectroenas rodericana Rodrigies pigeon 1708 Tyrberg (2009)
Nesoenas duboisi Réunion Pigeon 1705 Tyrberg (2009)
Threskiornis solitarius Réunion Flightless Ibis 1705 Tyrberg (2009)
Extinctions in the 17th century (1600 - 1699)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Anas theodori Mauritian Duck 1696 Tyrberg (2009)
Alopochen mauritianus Mauritian Shelduck 1693 Tyrberg (2009)
Aphanapteryx bonasia Red Rail 1693 Tyrberg (2009)
Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius Night-heron 1693 Tyrberg (2009)
Lophopsittacus mauritianus Broad-billed Parrot 1673 Tyrberg (2009)
Alopochen kervazoi Réunion Shelduck 1672 Tyrberg (2009)
Dryolimnas augusti Réunion Rail 1671-1672 Tyrberg (2009)
Falco duboisi Réunion Kestrel 1671-1672 Tyrberg (2009)
Foudia belloni Réunion Fody 1671-1672 Tyrberg (2009)
Nycticorax duboisi Réunion Night-heron 1671-1672 Tyrberg (2009)
'Necropsittacus' borbonicus Réunion Red And Green Parakeet 1671 Tyrberg (2009)
Raphus cucullatus Dodo 1662 Tyrberg (2009)
Cryptoprocta spelea Giant Fossa pre-1658? Turvey (2009)
Palaeopropithecus ingens Sloth Lemur pre-1658? Turvey (2009)
Mundia elpenor Ascension Flightless Crake 1656 Tyrberg (2009)
Ara martinica Martinique Macaw 1640 Bouton (1640), Fuller (2000)
Bos primigenius Aurochs 1627 Van Vuure (2003)
Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuban Cave-rail 1625 Tyrberg (2009)
Nyctanassa carcinocatactes Crab-eating Night-heron 1623 Tyrberg (2009)
Extinctions in the 16th century (1500 - 1599)
Scientific name Common name Last occurrence1,2,3 Reference
Plagiodontia ipnaeum Samana Hutia ?1536-1546 Turvey (2009)
Quemisia gravis Twisted-toothed Mouse ?1536-1546 Turvey (2009)
Noronhomys vespuccii Vespucci's Rice Rat 1503 Turvey (2009)
Nycticorax olsoni Ascension Night-heron 1502 Tyrberg (2009)
Bettongia pusilla Nullarbor Dwarf Bettong After 1500 9 Burbidge (2008), Johnson (2006), Turnbridge (1991)
Boromys offella Oriente Cave Rat After 1500 10 Allen (1942), Turvey & Helgen (2008a), Turvey (2009)
Boromys torrei Torre's Cave Rat After 1500 10 Allen (1942), Turvey & Helgen (2008b), Turvey (2009)

 

Notes

  1. Historical records of extinct species or subspecies are reported confirmed dates, e.g. in ship logs, paintings, reports, papers and books, on which a species or subspecies has been seen for the very last time (e.g. sightings or killings). In many cases an exact date is not known.
  2. Radiocarbon dating, or carbon dating, is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years. Raw, i.e. uncalibrated, radiocarbon ages are usually reported in radiocarbon years "Before Present" (BP), "Present" being defined as 1950 CE. Such raw ages can be calibrated to give accurate calendar dates (calibrated 14C age dates) of a species or subspecies last occurrence.
  3. Archaeoological or stratigraphic associations are a closely established relationship between two or more archaeological items (objects or structural elements) because they are physically linked by virtue of being within or attached to the same stratigraphically determined deposit or layer.
  4. In November and December 2006 a comprehensive visual and acoustic survey failed to find a single baiji or Yangtze River Dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) in the Yangtze River (Turvey et al. 2007). However Chinese media reported that a businessman in Tongling City in east China’s Anhui Province filmed “a big white animal” with his digital camera on 19 August 2007. Sadly, the picture quality was extremely poor, because it had been filmed at long range on a non specialized digital camera (Turvey, 2008). Professor Wang Ding, a leading scientist at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences later confirmed that the footage could  be showing the Baiji dolphin (WWF 2007), but he couldn't rule out the alternative possibility that it was a Yangtze Finless Porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis (Turvey, 2008).
  5. In January 2009, the Pyrenean Ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) became the first extinct animal to be resurrected by cloning. This newborn Pyrenean Ibex died after seven minutes due to breathing difficulties and became extinct for the second time.
  6. Two western black rhinos (Diceros bicornis longipes) are known to have been poached since 1996, one of which had been radio-tagged. WWF-sponsored surveys of range areas in 1996–97 indicated that at least 10 rhinos remained, with a possible eight others unconfirmed. (Emslie & Brooks 1999) In 2000, Dr Martin Brooks, IUCN SSC African Rhino Specialist Group chairman, estimated that just ten of the rhinos were still alive and could have drifted too far apart from each other to breed (Times Online 2006). Early 2006, a trio of experts systematically scoured 2,500 kilometres (1,200 miles) of habitat in northern Cameroon. This intensive survey of the West African black rhino has failed to locate any sign of their continued presence in their last refuges in northern Cameroon. As a result the World Conservation Union (IUCN) announced that this subspecies has been tentatively declared as extinct. (IUCN 2006).
  7. The most frequently quoted extinction date of the Caspian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) is late 1950s, but has almost no evidence to back it up. It appears this date came to be accepted after being quoted by H. Ziaie in "A Field Guide to the Mammals of Iran". According to E. Firouz in “A Guide to the Fauna of Iran, 1999”, the last tiger was killed in 1947 near Agh-Ghomish Village, 10 km East of Kalaleh, on the way to Minoodasht-Bojnoord. Some reports state that the last Caspian tiger was shot in Golestan National Park (Iran) or in Northern Iran in 1959 (Vuosalo 1976). However, other reports claim that the last Chinese Caspian tigers disappeared from the Manas River basin in the Tian Shan mountains, west of Ürümqi, China, in the 1960s. (Nowell & Jackson 1996) The last record from the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya river near the Aral Sea was an unconfirmed observation near Nukus in 1968 while tigers disappeared from the river’s lower reaches and the Pyzandh Valley once a stronghold, in the Turkmen-Uzbek-Afghan border region by the early 1970s (Heptner and Sludskii 1972). There are even claims of a documented killing of this subspecies at Uludere, Hakkari in Turkey in February of 1970 (Üstay 1990; Can 2004). There have even been unconfirmed reports of wild tigers in Turkey as recent as 2001 (Can 2004). An exact date of extinction is unknown. No one knows it really for certain. Recent genetic research even suggests that the Caspian Tiger never became extinct, but that they are one and the same as the surviving Siberian Tigers (Driscoll et al. 2009).
  8. An exact extinction date is unknown and it is possible that this species survives in capticity. The last wild Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) was killed in 1942 on the northern side of the Tizi-n-Tichka pass in the Atlas Mountains, near the road between Marrakesh and Ouarzazat. After its disappearence, this lion subspecies could only be found at the palace of the sultans and kings of Morocco. Meanwhile the rest of the world continued to assume the Barbary lion was extinct, a premature belief which nearly became fact when a respiratory disease hit the royal lions hard in the late 1960s. Later, a new and better enclosure was completed in Temara, near Rabat, to house the royal lions, and in 1973, under the administration of the Ministry of Agriculture, this became Rabat Zoo. The current royal lions in Rabat Zoo have not only the right Barbary looks, but also, very importantly, the right pedigree supported by circumstantial evidence. Although it may not be very solid, the existence of such evidence clearly separates the royal lions from all the other big-maned lions whose pedigrees are untraceable. The Barbary lion's genetic distinctiveness has not yet fully established and it is still unknown whether the royal lions are true pure Barbary lions (Dubach et al. 2005; Yamaguchi 2005; Yamaguchi and Haddane 2002; Barnett et al. 2006; Burger and Hemmer 2006; Antunes et al. 2008; Black et al. 2009).
  9. The Nullarbor Dwarf Bettong (Bettongia pusilla) is only known from recent subfossils (McNamara 1997). It was common in Holocene cave deposits. Arboriginal people from the desert country of the south of South Australia and adjecent areas of Western Australia have known a very small kangaroo that does not match any species recorded alive within the last 200 years (Johnson 2006; Turnbridge 1991). The word they used for this animal is 'wirlpa', 'weelba' or some other variant (Johnson 2006). This bettong probably was extant after 1500 AD and there is little doubt that this species may have still been alive when Europeans began settling in Australia (Burbidge 2008; Johnson 2006).
  10. Barn owl pellets in fossiliferous cave deposits in the western part of Cuba, containing predated Oriente Cave Rats (Boromys offella) and Torre's Cave Rats (Boromys torrei), other mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, were dated by radiocarbon dating at 14C 7864 ± 96 years BP and calibrated at 8993 - 8453 BP or 7044 - 6504 BCE (Jiménez Vázquez et al. 2005; Turvey 2009). However, this species is known from recent fossil deposits which also contain invasive rats. This suggest that it persisted until the modern era and that the extinction followed the arrival of European settlers around 1500 CE (Allen 1942; Turvey and Helgen 2008ab; Turvey 2009). Based on the remarkably fresh bones, some suggest it might have survived until the latter half of the nineteenth century (Allen 1942; Goodwin and Goodwin 1973; Nowak 1999).

 

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