Missing: Possibly Extinct

BaijiExtinctions have occurred in all animal and plant groups, but some are more studied than others. Some species, subspecies and varieties are not seen for many years. Proving extinction beyond reasonable doubt is often very difficult. A few species that were thought to be Extinct were subsequently rediscovered in remnant populations. This page identifies those species and subspecies that are likely to be extinct, but for which there is a small chance that they may still be extant. Surveys to discover whether these species and subspecies still exists should be carried out urgently, followed by appropriate conservation action if needed.

Often those are animals or plants that are classified as Critically Endangered or Data Deficient by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. BirdLife International applies also 'Possibly Extinct' tag to certain Critically Endangered species: CR (PE). This is not an official category of the IUCN Red List, but is under review by the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2010ab). They should not be listed as Extinct until local or unconfirmed reports have been discounted, and adequate surveys have failed to find any individuals. The Sixth Extinction Website classifies these missing animals and plants as Possibly Extinct (PE).

Photo: the lastest mammal extinction may that of the baiji or Yangtze River Dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer). A survey in 2006 failed to find a single individual. In August 2007 a possible baiji has been filmed. Sadly, the picture quality was extremely poor, because it had been filmed at long range on a non specialized digital camera (Turvey, 2008). Professor Wang Ding, a leading scientist at the Institute of Hydrobiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences later confirmed that the footage could  be showing the Baiji dolphin (WWF 2007), but he couldn't rule out the alternative possibility that it was a Yangtze Finless Porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis (Turvey, 2008). Photo copyright:baiji.org foundation, Steven Leatherwood. All right reserved.

NOTE: The lists with possibly extinct species and subspecies presented here are incomplete and will regularly be updated with new entries. Do you know a species or subspecies that should be included or has been rediscovered? Please contact us if you have more information.


Reptiles (2/0)
Amphibians (127/0)
Fish (43/0)
Molluscs (1/0)
Insects (11/0)
Arachnids (2/0)
Worms (2/0)


Mammals (Mammalia)

The subjoined table lists 35 mammal species and 4 mammal subspecies as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (49)
Scientific Name Common Name Last Sighting TSEW Status IUCN Status
Abditomys latidens Luzon Broad-toothed Rat 1972 PE DD
Bos sauveli Kouprey 1982 PE CR (PE)
Chrysochloris visagiei Visagie's Golden Mole 1949 PE DD
Crateromys paulus Ilin Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat 1953 PE DD
Crocidura trichura Christmas Island Shrew 1985 (1998?) PE CR (PE)
Crocidura wimmeri Wimmer's Shrew 1976 PE CR (PE)
Cryptochloris wintoni De Winton's Golden Mole 1907 PE CR (PE)
Cuscomys oblativa Machu Picchu Chinchilla Rat 1450-1532 PE EX
Dendrolagus mayri Wondiwoi Tree-kangaroo 1928 PE CR (PE)
Dendromus kahuziensis Mount Kahuzi Climbing Mouse 1967 PE CR
Dendromus vernayi Vernay's Climbing Mouse 1937 PE DD
Diplomesodon sonnerati Sonnerat's Shrew 1786-1813 PE NE
Dipodomys gravipes San Quintin Kangaroo Rat 1986 PE CR (PE)
Genetta poensis King Genet 1946 PE DD
Hybomys basilii Father Basilio's Striped Mouse 1962 PE EN
Leimacomys buettneri Groove-toothed Forest Mouse 1890 PE DD
Leporillus apicalis Lesser Stick-nest Rat  1933 (1970?) PE CR (PE)
Lipotes vexillifer Yangtze River Dolphin Before 2006 (2007?) PE CR (PE)
Melanomys zunigae Zuniga's Dark Rice Rat 1942 PE CR (PE)
Mesocapromys nanus Dwarf Hutia 1937 PE CR (PE)
Mesocapromys sanfelipensis Little Earth Hutia 1978 PE CR (PE)
Monodelphis unistriata One-striped Short-tailed Opossum 1899 PE CR (PE)
Murina tenebrosa Tsushima Tube-nosed Bat 1962 PE CR (PE)
Myotis hajastanicus Armenian Whiskered Bat 1980s PE CR
Mysateles garridoi Garrido's Hutia 1989 PE CR (PE)
Mysateles meridionalis Isla De La Juventud Tree Hutia 1978 PE CR
Mystacina robusta New Zealand Greater Short-tailed Bat 1967 PE CR
Nilopegamys plumbeus Ethiopian Amphibious Rat 1928 PE CR (PE)
Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe Long-Eared Bat 1887 PE CR (PE)
Octodon pacificus Pacific Degu 1959 PE CR
Peromyscus mekisturus Puebla Deer Mouse 1948 PE CR (PE)
Phalanger matanim Telefomin Cuscus 1997 (1998?) PE CR (PE)
Pharotis imogene New Guinea Big-eared Bat 1890 PE CR (PE)
Pipistrellus sturdeei Sturdee's Pipistrelle Before 1915 PE DD
Pteropus aruensis Aru Flying Fox 1800s (1867?) PE CR (PE)
Pteropus loochoensis Okinawa Flying Fox 1800s (1870?) PE DD
Pteropus tuberculatus Vanikoro Flying Fox Before 1930 PE CR (PE)
Rattus adustus Burnished Enggano Rat 1920s PE DD
Rattus enganus Enggano Island Rat 1904 PE DD
Rattus koopmani Koopman's Peleng Island Rat 1938 PE DD
Rattus pelurus Peleng Rat 1938 PE DD
Rattus salocco Southeastern Xanthurus Rat 1932 PE DD
Rhinolophus mitratus Mitred Horseshoe Bat 1844 PE DD
Scotophilus borbonicus Lesser Yellow Bat 1868 PE DD
Solomys salamonis Florida Naked-tailed Rat 1881 PE DD
Uromys emmae Emma's Giant Rat 1944-1945 PE CR (PE)
Uromys imperator Emperor Rat 1960s PE CR
Uromys porculus Guadalcanal Rat  1887 PE CR
Viverra civettina Malabar Civet 1990 PE CR
Subspecies (16)
Scientific Name Common Name Last Sighting TSEW Status IUCN Status
Blarina carolinensis shermani Sherman's Short-tailed Shrew 1954 PE NE
Cercopithecus mitis mitis Pluto Monkey Before 1997 PE NE
Cercopithecus mitis schoutedeni Schouteden’s Blue Monkey Before 2003 PE CR
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Northern Sumatran Rhinoceros 1999 PE NE
Dipodomys heermanni berkeleyensis Berkeley's Kangaroo Rat 1940 PE NE
Dipodomys heermanni morroensis Morro Bay Kangaroo Rat 1991 PE NE
Dipodomys microps alfredi Gunnison Island Kangaroo Rat 1937? PE NE
Dipodomys nitratoides exilis Fresno Kangaroo Rat 1992 PE NE
Equus africanus africanus Nubian Wild Ass 1970s PE NE
Hylobates lar yunnanensis Yunnan Lar Gibbon 1992 PE DD
Leptailurus serval constantinus North African Serval 1936 (1996?) PE NE
Ovis ammon jubata North Chinese Argali 1972 PE NE
Peromyscus guardia guardia Angel de la Guarda Deer Mouse 1997 (1995?) PE CR
Piliocolobus badius waldronae Miss Waldron's Red Colobus 1978 PE CR
Procolobus pennantii bouvieri Bouvier’s Red Colobus 1970s PE CR (PE)
Thomomys mazama louiei Cathlamet Pocket Gopher 1956 (1970s?) PE NE


Birds (Aves)

Po'o-uliThe subjoined table lists 31 bird species and 1 bird subspecies as missing (possibly extinct).

Photo: A Po'o-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma) on the island of Maui (Hawaii, United States) photographed by Paul E. Baker. One of three known individuals was captured in September 2004, but sadly died on 28 November 2004. The other two individuals have not been seen since 2004. Besides these three, no other individual Po'o-uli have been seen since 1998. This species may be extinct, but continuing surveys in all areas of potential habitat are still needed to confirm that no other individuals survive (BirdLife International 2009). This image is the work of an U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employee, taken during the course of an employee's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain. For more information, see the Fish and Wildlife Service copyright policy.


Species (31)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Anodorhynchus glaucus Glaucous Macaw PE CR
Campephilus imperialis Imperial Woodpecker PE CR (PE)
Campephilus principalis Ivory-billed Woodpecker PE CR
Charmosyna diadema New Caledonian Lorikeet   PE CR
Columba argentina Silvery Wood-pigeon PE CR
Cymochorea macrodacyla Guadalupe Storm-petrel PE CR (PE)
Cyornis ruckii Rueck's Blue-flycatcher PE CR
Eriocnemis godini Turquoise-throated Puffleg PE CR (PE)
Eurochelidon sirintarae White-eyed River-martin PE CR
Gallicolumba menagei Sulu Bleeding-heart PE CR
Gallinula pacifica Samoan Moorhen PE CR
Gallinula silvestris Makira Moorhen PE CR
Gallirallus lafresnayanus New Caledonian Wood Rail PE CR
Grallaria chthonia Tachira Antpitta PE CR
Hemignathus lucidus Nukupuu PE CR (PE)
Leucopeza semperi Semper's Warbler PE CR
Melamprosops phaeosoma Po'o-uli PE CR (PE)
Myadestes lanaiensis Olomao PE CR (PE)
Numenius borealis Eskimo Curlew PE CR (PE)
Ophrysia superciliosa Himalayan Quail PE CR
Otus siaoensis Siau Scops-owl PE CR
Paroreomyza maculata Oahu Creeper PE CR (PE)
Psittirostra psittacea Ou PE CR (PE)
Pterodroma caribbaea Jamaica Petrel PE CR (PE)
Ptilinopus arcanus Negros Fruit-dove PE CR
Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Pink-headed Duck PE CR
Siphonorhis americana Jamaican Pauraque PE CR (PE)
Sporophila melanops Hooded Seedeater PE CR (PE)
Tadorna cristata Crested Shelduck PE CR
Vanellus macropterus Javanese Lapwing PE CR
Vermivora bachmanii Bachman's Warbler PE CR (PE)
Subspecies (1)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Grallaria milleri gilesi Antioquia Brown-banded Antpitta PE NE


Reptiles (Reptilia)

The subjoined table lists 2 reptile species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (2) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Alsophis ater Black Racer PE CR
Aparallactus nigriceps Mozambique Centipede Eater PE NE


Amphibians (Amphibia)

In 2004, a total of 122 amphibian species were listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and 113 of these could have disappeared since 1980 (Baillie et al. 2004). The subjoined table lists 127 amphibian species (106 frogs and toads, 13 salamanders and 8 caecilians) as missing (possibly extinct). More additions are expected to follow.

Conservation International, Global Wildlife Conservation, the IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group and teams of scientists around the world had launched in August 2010 an unprecedented search in the hope of rediscovering 100 species of "lost" amphibians, animals considered possibly extinct but that may be holding on in a few remote places. This search is the first ever coordinated effort to find such a large number of "lost" creatures and comes as global amphibian populations are suffering a shocking decline, with more than 30 per cent of all species threatened with extinction. (Black 2010; IUCN 2010c; Conservation International 2010) The five-month global search took researchers to 21 countries, but sadly only four species of the targeted 100 were found (Black 2011). The team of scientists rediscovered the Mexican Cave Splayfoot Salamander (Chiropterotriton mosaueri), the Mount Nimba Reed Frog (Hyperolius nimbae), the Omaniundu Reed Frog (Hyperolius sankuruensis) and the Rio Pescade Stubfoot Toad (Atelopus balios) (Conservation International 2010). For more information you can visit: www.conservation.org/lostfrogs.

Scientists from India, inspired by this global search, launched their own campaign to find local species: the Lost! Amphibians of India (LAI) programme (Biju 2011; Concervation International 2011). The programme, co-ordinated by S.D. Biju from the University of Delhi, was formally launched on 2 November 2010. The good news is that just three months after launch of the campaign, LAI has made remarkable rediscoveries of five lost species of frogs: Dehradun Stream Frog (Amolops chakrataensis), Elegant Tropical Frog (Micrixalus elegans), Chalazodes Bubble-nest Frog (Raorchestes chalazodes), Anamalai Dot-frog (Ramanella anamalaiensis) and Silent Valley Tropical Frog (Micrixalus thampii). Currently 15 teams are pursuing the remaining 45 lost species. (University of Delhi 2011)

In July 2011, local scientists rediscovered the Sambas Stream toad or the Bornean rainbow toad (Ansonia latidisca) on Borneo in the Malaysian state of Sarawak These scientists were inspired by the 2010 search for the world's missing amphibians by Conservation International (CI), Global Wildlife Conservation and the IUCN Amphibian Specialist Group (BBC Nature 2011; Hance 2011).

Frogs and Toads (Anura) - Species (105) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Afrixalus schneideri Schneider's Banana Frog PE DD
Amietophrynus danielae Unknown PE DD
Amietophrynus perreti Unknown PE VU
Amolops jaunsari Jaunsar Stream Frog PE DD
Ansonia siamensis Unknown PE VU
Aromobates nocturnus Venezuelan Skunk Frog PE CR
Arthroleptis troglodytes Cave Squeaker PE CR
Atelopus carauta Rio Carauta Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus carbonerensis Venezuelan Yellow Frog PE CR
Atelopus chiriquiensis Unknown PE CR
Atelopus chocoensis Unknown PE CR
Atelopus dimorphus Unknown PE EN
Atelopus farci Forest Stubfoot Toad  PE CR
Atelopus galactogaster Unknown PE CR
Atelopus halihelos Morona-Santiago Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus longibrachius Unknown PE EN
Atelopus lozanoi Unknown PE CR
Atelopus lynchi Lynch's Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus mandingues Unknown PE CR
Atelopus mindoensis Mindo Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus minutulus Colombian Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus onorei Onore's Harlequin Toad PE CR
Atelopus oxyrhynchus Red-nosed Stubfoot Toad  PE CR
Atelopus petersi Peter's Stubfoot Toad PE CR
Atelopus sernai Unknown PE CR
Atelopus sonsonensis Unknown PE CR
Atelopus sorianoi Scarlet Harlequin Frog PE CR
Atopophrynus syntomopus Unknown PE CR
Callixalus pictus African Painted Frog PE VU
Chiromantis shyamrupus Hornbill Bubble-nest Frog PE DD
Chrysobatrachus cupreonitens Unknown PE DD
Cochranella geijskesi Unknown PE DD
Colostethus jacobuspetersi Quito Rocket Frog PE CR
Craugastor angelicus Angel Robber Frog PE CR
Craugastor coffeus Unknown PE CR
Craugastor fleischmanni Fleischmann's Robber Frog PE CR
Craugastor omoaensis Unknown PE CR
Craugastor stadelmani Unknown PE CR
Crossodactylus grandis Bahia Spinythumb Frog PE DD
Cryptothylax minutus Unknown PE DD
Cycloramphus diringshofeni Sao Bent Button Frog PE DD
Cycloramphus valae Gruta Button Frog PE DD
Dasypops schirchi Unknown PE VU
Eleutherodactylus eneidae Mottled Coqui PE CR
Eleutherodactylus glanduliferoides La Selle Grass Frog PE CR
Eleutherodactylus jasperi Golden Coqui PE CR
Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti Web-footed Coqui PE CR
Euphlyctis ghoshi Manipus FrogManipur Frog PE DD
Fejervarya assimilis Calcutta Frog PE DD
Fejervarya murthii Ghats Wart Frog PE CR
Fejervarya parambikulamana Parambikulum Frog PE DD
Fejervarya sauriceps Mysore Wart Frog PE DD
Fejervarya brama Bengal Toad PE DD
Ghatophryne rubigina Kerala Steam Toad PE VU
Glandirana minima Small Mountain Frog PE CR
Holoaden bradei Unknown PE CR
Hyla helenae Helena's Treefrog PE DD
Hylarana melanomenta Papahag Frog PE DD
Hylodes mertensi Mertens' Tree Toad PE DD
Hyloscirtus chlorosteus Parjacti Treefrog PE CR
Hyloscirtus denticulentus Charta Treefrog PE EN
Hyloscirtus lynchi Lynch's Colombian Treefrog PE EN
Hypsiboas cymbalum Campo Grande Treefrog PE CR
Hypsiboas fuentei Fuente's Powakka Treefrog PE DD
Indirana longicrus Roa's Frog PE DD
Indirana tenuilingua Roa's Indian Frog PE DD
Ingerana charlesdarwini Charles Darwin's Frog PE CR
Limnonectes khasianus Khasi Wart Frog PE DD
Lithobates omiltemanus Guerreran Leopard Frog PE CR
Lithobates tlaloci Tlaloc's Leopard Frog PE CR
Litoria nyakalensis Mountain Mist Frog PE CR
Litoria piperata Peppered Treefrog PE CR
Micrixalus narainensis Narain's Torrent Frog PE DD
Micrixalus silvaticus Forest Torrent Frog PE DD
Micrixalus swamianus Ramaswami's Torrent frog PE DD
Paratelmatobius lutzii Unknown PE DD
Peltophryne fluviatica Hispaniolan Crestless Toad PE CR
Petropedetes dutoiti Du Toit's Torrent Frog PE CR
Philautus dubius Darjeeling Bubble-nest Frog PE DD
Philautus jacobsoni Jacobson's Bubble-nest Frog  PE CR
Philautus jerdonii Jerdon's Bubble-nest Frog PE DD
Philautus kempii Kemp's Spadefoot frog PE DD
Philautus microdiscus Kobo Bubble-nest Frog PE DD
Philautus sanctisilvaticus Sacred Grove Bush Frog PE CR
Phrynobatrachus brongersmai Unknown PE NE
Plectrohyla hazelae Hazel's Treefrog PE CR
Plectrohyla mykter Unknown PE EN
Pristimantis bernali Argelia Robber Frog PE CR
Ramanella minor Little Dot Frog PE DD
Ramanella montana Mountain Dot Frog PE NT
Ranitomeya abdita Collins' Poison Frog PE CR
Raorchestes flaviventris Malabar Bubble-nest Frog PE DD
Raorchestes sahai Sahai Bush Frog PE DD
Rhinella rostrata Mesopotamia Beaked Toad PE CR
Rhinoderma rufum Chile Darwin's Frog PE CR
Raorchestes terebrans Boring Bush Frog PE DD
Scutiger maculatus Piebald Alpine Toad PE CR
Sphaerotheca leucorhynchus Roa's Burrowing Frog PE DD
Taudactylus acutirostris Sharp-snouted Day Frog PE CR
Telmatobius brevipes Unknown PE EN
Telmatobius niger Kayla PE CR
Theloderma moloch Eerie Tree Frog PE VU
Uperoleia marmorata Marbled Toadlet PE DD
Vandijkophrynus amatolicus Amatola Toad PE CR
Werneria africana Unknown PE NE
Salamanders (Caudata) - Species (13) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Bolitoglossa hermosa Guerreran Climbing Salamander PE NT
Bolitoglossa jacksoni Jackson's Climbing Salamander PE DD
Cryptotriton alvarezdeltoroi Alvarez del Toro's Moss Salamander PE EN
Cryptotriton wakei Wake's Moss Salamander PE CR
Eurycea robusta Blanco Blind Salamander PE DD
Hynobius turkestanicus Turkestanian Salamander PE DD
Oedipina altura Cartago Worm Salamander PE CR
Oedipina paucidentata El Empalme Worm Salamander PE CR
Pseudoeurycea ahuitzotl Unknown PE CR
Pseudoeurycea brunata Brown False Brook Salamander PE CR
Pseudoeurycea praecellens Admirable False Brook Salamander PE CR
Pseudoeurycea tenchalli Unknown PE EN
Thorius infernalis Atoyac Minute Salamander PE CR
Caecilians (Gymnophiona) - Species (8) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Ichthyophis husaini Husain's Caecilian PE DD
Ichthyophis longicephalus Long-headed Caecilian PE DD
Ichthyophis singaporensis Singapore Caecilian PE DD
Uraeotyphlus interruptus Chengalam Caecilian PE DD
Uraeotyphlus malabaricus Malabar Caecilian PE DD
Uraeotyphlus menoni Menon's Caecilian PE DD
Uraeotyphlus narayani Narayan's Caecilian PE DD
Uraeotyphlus oommeni Oommen's Caecilian PE DD

Fish (Actinopterygii & Cephalaspidomorphi)

The subjoined table lists 8 fish species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (43) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Coregonus hoferi Schwebrenke PE CR
Haplochromis arcanus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis artaxerxes Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis bartoni Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis bayoni Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis boops Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis cassius Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis decticostoma  Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis dentex Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis estor Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis flavipinnis Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis gilberti Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis gowersi Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis ishmaeli  Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis lividus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis longirostris Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis macrognathus Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis maculipinna Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis mandibularis Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis martini Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis michaeli Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis microdon Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis mylergates  Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis nanoserranus Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis nigrescens Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis nyanzae Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis obtusidens  Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis pachycephalus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis paraguiarti  Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis paraplagiostoma Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis percoides Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis perrieri Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis pharyngomylus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis prognathus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis pseudopellegrini Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis spekii Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis teegelaari Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis thuragnathus Unknown PE DD
Haplochromis victorianus Unknown PE CR
Haplochromis xenostoma Unknown PE CR
Hoplotilapia retrodens Unknown PE VU
Knipowitschia cameliae Danube Delta Dwarf Goby PE CR
Pyxichromis parorthostoma Unknown PE DD


Molluscs (Mollusca)

The subjoined table list 1 mollusc species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (1) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Belgrandia varica Unknown PE CR(PE)


Sea Anemones & Corals (Anthozoa)

Sea anemones and corals are marine animals of the class Anthozoa. Although the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2010.2 (IUCN 2010a) has not listed any animal from this class as extinct, that does not mean there are some that are possibly extinct. It has been calculated that 50,000-60,000 coral species could become extinct if only 5% of reef area is destroyed and 300,000-400,000 coral species could become extinct if 30% of the global reefs were destroyed (Carlton et al. 1999). Many probably unnoticed. The subjoined table lists 2 anthozoa species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (2) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Edwardsia ivelli Ivell's Sea Anemone PE DD
Ivell's sea anemone is only known from the Widewater Lagoon in West Sussex, England. It was first discovered by Dick Manuel in 1975 when he and his colleague Professor Richard Ivell were examining Widewater for anemones. This Ivell's Sea Anemone has not been recorded since 1983. Since that year, three surveys have failed to record this sea anemone. The habitat of Ivell's sea anemone is threatened by habitat degradation as a result of reduced seawater inflow from adjacent marshes. Pollution from nearby gardens following the run-off of pesticides and fertilisers has also caused reduced water quality. This animal may be extinct but this is a small anemone of shallow soft mud bottoms, a habitat not well explored for small invertebrates, and thus this creature may well be living, unnoticed, in other localities. (Barnes 1994; Jackson 1999; World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996)
Millepora boschmai Boschmai's Fire Coral PE CR
The hydrocoral Millepora boschmai (Weerdt & Glynn 1991), endemic to Panama, disappeared from shallow reef habitats during the 1982-83 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and was believed to have suffered extinction (Glynn and de Weerdt 1991). A survey in a relatively deep, off-reef habitat about nine years following the first disappearance of this species revealed a living population of under 100 colonies (Glynn and Feingold 1992). Evidently this population, located on the north shore of Uva Island (named Lazarus Cove), Gulf of Chiriquí, Panamá, survived the 1982-83 ENSO warming event. Unfortunately, all of these colonies bleached and died six years later, during the 1997-98 ENSO. (Glynn 2001) No confirmed living animals are known, although animals possibly conspecific with this species have recently been reported from Indonesia. Research into this possibility is recommended. (Razak & Hoeksema 2003; Guzmá & Edgar 2008; IUCN 2010a)


Crustaceans (Crustacea)

The subjoined table lists 0 crustacean species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (0) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
None None - -


Insects (insecta)

The subjoined table lists 9 insect species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (11) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Leptogryllus deceptor Oahu Deceptor Bush Cricket PE EW
Omiodes asaphombra 'Ohe Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes continuatalis Unknown PE DD
Omiodes epicentra Oahu Swamp Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes euryprora Ola'A Banana Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes fullawayi Fullaway's Banana Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes laysanensis Laysan Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes meyricki Meyrick's Banana Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes musicola Maui Banana Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Omiodes telegrapha Telegraphic Hedyleptan Moth PE DD
Sympetrum dilatatum St. Helena Darter PE DD


Arachnids (Arachnida)

The subjoined table lists 2 arachnid species as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (2) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Pterotrogus principalis Ivory-billed Woodpecker Feather Mite PE NE
Thermacarus nevadensis Nevada Water Mite PE NE


Worms (Annelida, Onychophora & Platyhelminthes)

The subjoined table lists 1 worm species, a species of velvet worm (Onychophora) as missing (possibly extinct).

Species (2) / Subspecies (0)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Peripatopsis leonina Lion's Hill Velvet Worm PE CR
The Lion's Hill Velvet Worm has only been recorded from the type locality of Lion's Hill (Signal Hill), a small area in the Western Cape, South Africa. It was last collected in 1900. Unfortunately, the type locality and its habitat have undergone enormous changes over the past 100 years. It was listed as extinct (EX) since the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, but has removed from the extinctions list in the 2003 red list. The justification of the IUCN is: "there is no conclusive evidence that this species is extinct, and given the nature of onychophorans and the lack of research on this group, there is a chance that this species may still be extant, but Critically Endangered as a result of changes to its narrow habitat". Recently, velvet worms have recently been reported as being seen at Lion's Hill, but none have been collected. (Hamers 2003; IUCN 2010a)
Xerobdella lecomtei European Land Leech PE NE


The Sixth Extinction Database (TSED)

The Sixth Extinction has created a database (TSED 1.0) with currently all known recent mammal extinctions, possible extinctions, extinctions in the wild, rediscoveries, and more. Later versions of this database will include extinctions from all animal and plant groups. The database is free to download in Excel and OpenDocument formats.

ExcelExcelOpen Document



Barnes, R.S.K. (1994). The Brackish-Water Fauna of Northwestern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Unic. Press. 287 pp.

BBC Nature (2011). Lost rainbow toad is rediscovered. Downloaded on 14 July 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/14151541.

Biju S.D., Bossuyt F., Church D.R., Das I., Dinesh K.P., Firoz A., Gower D.J., Gururaja K.V., Kamei R.G., Mahony S., Robin M., Saibal S., Vasudevan K., Vijayakumar S.P. and Wilkinson M. (2011). LAI list version 2. Lost! Amphibians of India, in search of 'lost species'. University of Delhi. Downloaded on 18 February 2011 from http://www.lostspeciesindia.org/LAI2/wanted.php.

BirdLife International (2009). Melamprosops phaeosoma. In: IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 October 2010.

Black, R. (2010). Global hunt begins for 'extinct' species of frogs. BBC News (9 August 2010). Downloaded on 14 August 2010 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10859989.

Black, R. (2011). Frog hunt ends: Most still absent. BBC News (17 February 2011). Downloaded on 17 February 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12484316.

Boyd, J.H. (2011). Taxonomy in Flux Checklist 2.5. <http://www.jboyd.net/Taxo/List.html>. Downloaded on 28 january 2011.

Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla, and E. A. Norse. (1999). Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30:525–538. Online pdf.

Conservation International (2010). Search for the lost aphibians - The frogs that may not have croaked. Press Release 9 August 2010. Downloaded on 14 August 2010 from http://www.conservation.org/newsroom/pressreleases/Pages/lost_frogs.aspx.

Conservation International (2011). The search for lost frogs - Rediscovering lost amphibians around the world. Downloaded on 18 February 2011 from http://www.conservation.org/campaigns/lost_frogs/Pages/search_for_lost_amphibians.aspx.

Fontaine, B. et al., (2007) The European union’s 2010 target: Putting rare species in focus. Biological Conservation 139: 167–185. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.012.

Glynn, P.W. (2001). History Of Significant Coral Bleaching Events And Insights Regarding Amelioration: 36-39. In: Salm, R.V. and S.L. Coles (eds). (2001). Coral Bleaching and Marine Protected Areas. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mitigating Coral Bleaching Impact Through MPA Design, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, 29-31 May 2001. Asia Pacific Coastal Marine Program Report # 0102, The Nature Conservancy, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A: 118 pp.

Glynn, P. W. and J. S. Feingold. (1992). Hydrocoral species not extinct. Science 257: 1845.

Glynn, P. W. and W. H. de Weerdt. (1991). Elimination of two reef-building hydrocorals following the 1982-83 El Niño warming event. Science 253: 69-71.

Guzmán, H. & Edgar, G. (2008). Millepora boschmai. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2010.

Hamer, M. (2003). Peripatopsis leonina. In: IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2010.

Hance, J. (2011). First ever picture of long lost rainbow toad. Mongabay.com, 13 July 2011. Downloaded on 14 July 2011 from http://news.mongabay.com/2011/0713-hance_borneanrainbowtoad.html.

IUCN (2010a). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2010.

IUCN (2010b). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 7 November  2010.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 June 2011.

IUCN (2010c). Search for lost amphibians, News Release 11 August 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 14 August 2010 from http://www.iucnredlist.org/news/search-for-lost-amphibians.

Jackson, A., (1999). Edwardsia ivelli. Ivell's sea anemone. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 19/07/2006]. Available from: <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/Edwardsiaivelli.htm>

Mironov, S.V., Dabert, J. and Ehrnsberger, R. (2005). A New Species of the Feather Mite Genus Pterotrogus Gaud (Analgoidea: Pteronyssidae) from the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis L. (Aves: Piciformes). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98(1):13-17. (doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2005)098[0013:ANSOTF]2.0.CO;2)

Prie, V. (2009). Belgrandia varica. In: IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 November 2010.

Razak, T.B. & B.W. Hoeksema, (2003). The hydrocoral genus Millepora (Hydrozoa: Capitata: Milleporidae) in Indonesia. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 345: 313-336.

Turvey, S. (2008). Witness to extinction. How we failed to save the Yangtze River Dolphin. Oxford University Press, New York.

University of Delhi (2011). Rediscovery of 5 Lost! Frogs from India. Press Release 17 February 2011. Downloaded from http://www.lostspeciesindia.org/LAI2/Press%20Relaease/feb2011/INDIAN%20DISCOVERY.pdf

Weerdt, W.H. de & P.W. Glynn, (1991). A new and presumably now extinct species of Millepora (Hydrozoa) in the eastern Pacific. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden, 65: 267-276.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Edwardsia ivelli. In: IUCN (2006). 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 September 2006.

Zippel, K.C.. (Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Amphibian Program Officer), Personal communication, October 2010.


Citation: Maas, P.H.J. (2011). Missing (Possibly Extinct). In: TSEW (). The Sixth Extinction Website. <http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct>. Downloaded on .
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors, questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please contact us so that we can correct or extend the information provided.
Updated: 14 July 2011


Download the web's best free web site templates at JustDreamweaver.com