Globally Extinct: Mammals

Juvenile Thylacine 1928In 2008, the most comprehensive assessment of the world’s mammals has confirmed an extinction crisis, with almost one in four at risk of disappearing forever, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2008). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2013.1) shows that at least 1219 of the 5487 mammal species on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction (Schippers et al. 2008; IUCN 2013). According to the IUCN at least 77 mammal species and 8 mammal subspecies have become extinct since the year 1500 (IUCN 2013). However, the real situation could be much worse, as 834 mammal species are listed as Data Deficient (IUCN 2013). As information improves, more mammals may well prove to be in danger of extinction or already extinct (IUCN 2008).

Photo: A juvenile male Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus) at Hobart Zoo (Tasmania, Australia) taken by Benjamin A. Sheppard in 1928. The animal died the day after it was photographed. This image is of Australian origin and is now in the public domain because its term of copyright has expired. According to the Australian Copyright Council(ACC), ACC Information Sheet G23 (Duration of copyright) (Feb 2008).

Do you know any species or subspecies that should be added to this list or has been rediscovered? If so, please contact this website.

Species

The subjoined table shows the mammal species that recently became 'globally extinct' (EX). For mammal species considered 'possibly extinct' (PE): click here.

Species (92)
Scientific Name Common Name Last sighting / EED 1 TSEW Status IUCN Status
Bettongia pusilla Nullarbor Dwarf Bettong After 1500 EX EX
Boromys offella Oriente Cave Rat After 1500 (1850?) EX EX
Boromys torrei Torre's Cave Rat After 1500 (1850?) EX EX
Boryptera alba Bory's White Bat 1801 EX NE
Bos primigenius Aurochs 1627 EX EX
Brotomys voratus Hispaniolan Edible Rat 1536-1546 EX EX
Caloprymnus campestris Desert Rat Kangaroo 1935 2 EX EX
Capromys sp. nov. Cayman Islands Hutia 1586 EX NE
Chaeropus ecaudatus Pig-footed Bandicoot  1950s EX EX
Conilurus albipes White-footed Rabbit-rat 1860-1862 EX EX
Coryphomys buehleri Buhler's Rat After 1500 EX EX
Cryptonanus ignitus Red-bellied Gracile Mouse Opossum 1962 EX EX
Cryptoprocta spelea Giant Fossa Before 1658? EX EX
Damaliscus selousi Uasin Gishu Topi 1900s? EX NE
Desmodus draculae Giant Vampire Bat Before 1820? EX EX
Dusicyon australis Falkland Island Wolf 1876 EX EX
Ekbletomys hypenemus Leeward Rice Rat After 1500 EX NE
Eudorcas rufina Red Gazelle Before 1894 EX DD
Gazella bilkis Queen of Sheba's Gazelle 1951 EX EX
Gazella saudiya Saudi Gazelle 1936 (1980s?) EX EX
Geocapromys columbianus Cuban Coney  After 1500 EX EX
Geocapromys thoracatus  Little Swan Island Hutia 1950s EX EX
Hexolobodon phenax  Imposter Hutia After 1500 EX EX
Hippopotamus guldbergi Madagascan Dwarf Hippopotamus After 1500 (1976?) EX EX
Hippopotamus lemerlei Lemerle's Hippopotamus After 1500 (1976?) EX EX
Hippotragus leucophaeus Bluebuck 1800 EX EX
Hydrodamalis gigas Steller's Sea Cow 1768 EX EX
Isolobodon montanus  Montane Hutia After 1500 EX EX
Isolobodon portoricensis Puerto Rican Hutia 1503-1578 EX EX
Juscelinomys candango Candango Mouse 1960 EX EX
Lagorchestes asomatus Central Hare-wallaby  1960s EX EX
Lagorchestes leporides Eastern Hare-wallaby 1889 EX EX
Lagostomus crassus Peruvian Viscacha Before 1910 EX EX
Lutra nippon Japanese Otter 1979 EX NE
Macropus greyi Toolache Wallaby  1939 (1972?) EX EX
Macrotis leucura Lesser Bilby  1960s EX EX
Megalomys desmarestii Antillean Giant Rice Rat 1897 (1902?) EX EX
Megalomys luciae  Santa Lucia Giant Rice Rat Before 1881 EX EX
Megaoryzomys curioi Galapágos Giant Rat 1520-1950 EX EX
Megaoryzomys sp. nov. Isabela Giant Rice Rat 1515-1950 EX NE
Monachus tropicalis Caribbean Monk Seal 1952 EX EX
Neotoma anthonyi Anthony's Woodrat 1926 EX EX
Neotoma bunkeri Bunkers Woodrat 1931 EX EX
Neotoma martinensis San Martin Island Woodrat 1950s EX EX
Neovison macrodon  Sea Mink 1860 (1894?) EX EX
Nesophontes edithae Puerto Rican Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesophontes hypomicrus Atalaye Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesophontes longirostris Slender Cuban Nesophontes After 1500 EX NE
Nesophontes major Greater Cuban Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesophontes micrus Western Cuban Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesophontes paramicrus Saint Michel Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesophontes submicrus Lesser Cuban Nesophontes After 1500 EX NE
Nesophontes superstes Cuban Nesophontes After 1500 EX NE
Nesophontes zamicrus Haitian Nesophontes After 1500 EX EX
Nesoryzomys darwini Darwin's Galapagos Mouse After 1500 EX EX
Nesoryzomys indefessus Indefatigable Galapagos Mouse After 1500 EX EX
Noronhomys vespuccii Vespucci's Rodent 1503 EX EX
Notomys amplus Short-tailed Hopping-mouse Before 1896 EX EX
Notomys longicaudatus Long-tailed Hopping-mouse 1901 EX EX
Notomys macrotis  Big-eared Hopping-mouse 1843 EX EX
Notomys mordax  Darling Downs Hopping-mouse  1846 EX EX
Notomys robustus Great Hopping Mouse 1850-1900? EX NE
Nyctimene sanctacrucis Nendo Tube-nosed Fruit Bat Before 1892 EX DD
Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat 1892 EX EX
Onychogalea lunata Crescent Nailtail Wallaby 1956 EX EX
Oryzomys antillarum Jamaican Rice Rat 1877 EX EX
Oryzomys hypenemus Barbuda Rice Rat After 1500 EX NE
Oryzomys nelsoni Nelson's Rice Rat 1897 EX EX
Palaeopropithecus ingens Large Sloth Lemur 1300-1620 EX EX
Pennatomys nivalis Nevis Rice Rat 1720? (1930s?) EX EX
Perameles eremiana Desert Bandicoot  1960s EX EX
Peromyscus pembertoni Pemberton's Deer Mouse 1931 EX EX
Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island Pipistrelle 2009 EX CR (PE)
Plagiodontia ipnaeum  Samana Hutia 1536-1546? EX EX
Potorous platyops Broad-faced Potoroo  1875 EX EX
Prolagus sardus Sardinian Pika 1774 EX EX
Pseudomys glaucus Blue-grey Mouse 1956 EX EX
Pseudomys gouldii Gould's Mouse 1857 EX EX
Pteropus allenorum Small Samoan Flying Fox 1856 EX NE
Pteropus brunneus Dusky Flying Fox 1874 EX EX
Pteropus coxi Large Samoan Flying Fox 1838-1842 (1980s?) EX NE
Pteropus pilosus Large Palau Flying Fox Before 1874 EX EX
Pteropus subniger Lesser Mascarene Flying Fox Before 1866 EX EX
Pteropus tokudae Guam Flying Fox 1968 EX EX
Quemisia gravis Twisted-Toothed Mouse 1536-1546 EX NE
Rattus macleari Maclear's Rat 1903 EX EX
Rattus nativitatis Bulldog Rat 1903 EX EX
Rucervus schomburgki Schomburgk's Deer 1938 EX EX
Solenodon marcanoi Marcano's Solenodon After 1500 EX EX
Thylacinus cynocephalus Tasmanian Tiger 1936 EX EX
Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaican Monkey After 1500 (1769?) EX EX
Zalophus japonicus Japanese Sea Lion 1951 EX EX

 

Subspecies

The subjoined table shows the mammal subspecies that recently became 'globally extinct' (EX). For mammal subspecies considered 'possibly extinct' (PE): click here.

Subspecies (60)
Scientific Name Common Name Last sighting / EED 1 TSEW Status IUCN Status
Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus Bubal Hartebeest 1925 EX EX
Alces alces caucasicus Caucasian Elk 1900s (1810?) EX NE
Bettongia gaimardi gaimardi  Eastern Bettong   1920s EX NE
Bettongia penicillata penicillata Brush-tailed Bettong  1923 EX NE
Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasian Wisent 1927 EX NE
Bison bonasus hungarorum Carpathian Wisent 1790 EX NE
Bos gaurus sinhaleyus Sri Lankan Gaur 1812-1841 EX NE
Canis lupus hattai Hokkaido Japanese Wolf  1889 EX NE
Canis lupus hodophilax Honshu Japanese Wolf 1905 EX NE
Canis rufus floridanus Florida Black Wolf 1930 EX NE
Canis rufus rufus Texas Red Wolf 1970s EX NE
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica Portuguese Ibex 1892 EX NE
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Pyrenean Ibex 2000 & 2009 3 EX NE
Cervus canadensis canadensis Eastern Elk  1877 EX NE
Cervus canadensis merriami Merriam Elk 1906 EX NE
Chaetodipus rudinoris fornicatus Monserrate Island Pocket Mouse 1975 EX NE
Choeropsis liberiensis heslopi Niger Delta Pygmy Hippopotamus 1945 EX NE
Conepatus leuconotus telmalestes Big Thicket Hog-nosed Skunk 1945 EX NE
Diceros bicornis longipes Western Black Rhinoceros Before 2006 EX EX
Equus ferus ferus Tarpan 1918-1919 EX NE
Equus hemionus hemippus Syrian Wild Ass 1928 EX NE
Equus quagga quagga Quagga 1883 EX EX
Geocapromys ingrahami abaconis Great Abaco Hutia 1600 EX NE
Geocapromys ingrahami irrectus Crooked Island Hutia 1600 EX NE
Geomys pinetis goffi Goff's Southeastern Pocket Gopher   1955 EX NE
Kobus leche robertsi Roberts' Lechwe After 1913 EX EX
Lagorchestes hirsutus hirsutus  Rufous Hare-wallaby 1900 EX NE
Lagostrophus fasciatus baudinettei South Australian Banded Hare-Wallaby 1927 EX NE
Leopardus wiedii cooperi Texas Margay 1852 EX NE
Lutra lutra whiteleyi Japanese River Otter 1955-1959 EX NE
Lynx lynx sardiniae Sardinian Lynx 1967? EX NE
Microtus montanus nevadensis Ash Meadows Montane Vole 1933 EX NE
Microtus ochrogaster ludovicianus Louisiana Vole 1899 EX NE
Myrmecobius fasciatus rufus Rusty Numbat 1950 (1960?) EX NE
Ourebia ourebi kenyae Kenya Oribi 1980s? EX EX
Panthera leo leo Barbary Lion After 1942? EX VU
Panthera leo melanochaitus Cape Lion 1865 EX NE
Panthera pardus adersi Zanzibar Leopard 1996 EX NE
Panthera tigris balica Bali Tiger 1937 (1972?) EX EX
Panthera tigris sondaica Javan Tiger 1979 EX EX
Panthera tigris virgata Caspian Tiger 1970 EX EX
Perognathus alticolus alticolus White-eared Pocket Mouse 1934 EX NE
Peromyscus guardia harbisoni Granito Island Deer Mouse 1963 EX NE
Peromyscus guardia mejiae Mejía Island Deer Mouse 1973 EX NE
Peromyscus maniculatus cineritius San Roque Deer Mouse 1960s EX NE
Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus Cape Warthog 1871 (1896?) EX NE
Rangifer tarandus eogroenlandicus East Greenland Caribou 1900 EX NE
Ratufa indica dealbata Dangs Giant Squirrel 1940s EX NE
Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus Vietnamese Javan Rhinoceros 2010 EX NE
Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis Indian Javan Rhinoceros Before 1925 (1892-1908?) EX NE
Rhinolophus cornutus miyakonis Miyako Horseshoe Bat 1971 EX NE
Sigmodon arizonae arizonae Camp Verde Arizona Cotton Rat 1932 EX NE
Sigmodon arizonae jacksoni Yavapai Arizona Cotton Rat 1900s (1918?) EX NE
Sorex ornatus juncensis Tule Shrew 1905 EX NE
Sus cebifrons cebifrons Cebu Warty Pig 1960s EX NE
Tamias umbrinus nevadensis Nevada Uinta Chipmunk 1960 EX NE
Thomomys mazama tacomensis Tacoma Pocket Gopher  1974 EX NE
Ursus arctos californicus California Golden Bear 1924 EX NE
Ursus arctos crowtheri Atlas Bear 1841? EX NE
Vulpes macrotis macrotis Southern California Kit Fox 1903 EX NE

 

Notes

  1. The Effective Extinction Date (EED) is the last reliable record of collection or observation.
  2. It was first believed extinct in 1841, but rediscovered in 1931 (Fisher & Blomberg 2010). There have been no reliable records of the species since 1935, but there were unconfirmed sightings in Queensland following periods of rain in 1956-1957 and 1974-1975 (Carr & Robinson 1997; Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop 2008). According MacPhee & Flemming (1999) its EED is 1932.
  3. The very last individual died on 6 January 2000 in Ordesa National Park in Spain (Caprinae Specialist Group 2000). In January 2009 it became the first extinct animal to be resurrected by cloning, but died after 7 minutes (Folch et al. 2009; Gray & Dobson 2009).
  4. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (version 2012.2) includes the Insular Cave Rat (Heteropsomys insulans) as an recent extinction (Turvey & Helgen 2008; IUCN 2012), however radiocarbon dating of the subfossil bones suggest it became extinct arround CE 694-887 (Turvey 2009). Therefore it probably did not persisted until the time of first European arrival in the West Indies.
  5. The population of Deer Mouse from Estanque Island (Peromyscus guardia subsp. indet.), last seen in 1998, may represent an undescribed subspecies (Mellink et al. 2002; Vázquez-Domínguez et al. 2004), but may also be conspecific with the Angel de la Guarda Deer Mouse (Peromyscus guardia guardia).

 

The Sixth Extinction Database (TSED)

The Sixth Extinction has created a database (TSED 1.0) with currently all known recent mammal extinctions, possible extinctions, extinctions in the wild, rediscoveries, and more. Later versions of this database will include extinctions from all animal and plant groups. The database is free to download in Excel and OpenDocument formats.

ExcelExcelOpen Document

 

References

Australasian Mammal Assessment Workshop (2008). Caloprymnus campestris. In: IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.

Brook, S., Van Coeverden de Groot, P., Mahood, S., Long, B. (2011). Extinction of the Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) from Vietnam. WWF Report.

Caprinae Specialist Group (2000). Capra pyrenaica ssp. pyrenaica. In: IUCN (2004). 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.redlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 October 2005.

Carr, S. G. and Robinson, A. C. (1997). The present status and distribution of the Desert Rat-kangaroo Caloprymnus campestris (Marsupialia: campestris). South Australian Naturalist 72: 4-27.

Cheke, A., Hume, J. (2008). Lost Land of the Dodo, An Ecological History of Mauritius, Réunion & Rordrigues. T & AD Poyser, London.

Fisher, D.O. and Blomberg, S.P. (2010). Correlates of rediscovery and the detectability of extinction in mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Published online 29 September 2010, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1579.

Fisher, Diana O., and Blomberg Simon P. (2012). Inferring Extinction of Mammals from Sighting Records, Threats, and Biological Traits. Conservation Biology, Volume 26, No. 1, 57–67. Article first published online: 2 december 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01797.x

Folch, J., et al. (2009) First birth of an animal from an extinct subspecies (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) by cloning. Theriogenology, 71, 1026-1034.

Gray, R. and Dobson, R. (2009). Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning. Telegraph.co.uk (31 January 2009). Downloaded on 1 February 2009.

IUCN (2008). IUCN Red List reveals world's mammals in crisis. IUCN Press release 06 October 2008. Downloaded on 18 July 2010 from http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/red_list/index.cfm?uNewsID=1695.

IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.

IUCN (2013). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 July 2013.

MacPhee, R.D.E. and Flemming, C. (1999). Requiem Æternam. The last five hundred years of mammalian species extinctions. In: R.D.E. MacPhee (ed.). Extinctions in Near Time. Pp.333-371. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Mellink, E., Ceballos, G. and Luevano, J. (2002). Population demise and extinction threat of the Angel de la Guarda deer mouse (Peromyscus guarda). Biological Conservation 108: 107-111.

Schipper, J. et al. 2008. The status of the world’s land and marine mammals; diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322:225-230.

Turvey, S. (2008). Witness to extinction. How we failed to save the Yangtze River Dolphin. Oxford University Press, New York.

Turvey, S.T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions. In: Turvey, S.T. (editor) (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). Heteropsomys insulans. In: IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.

Vázquez-Domínguez, E., Ceballos, G., and Cruzado, J. (2004). "Extirpation of an insular subspecies by a single introduced cat: the case of the endemic deer mouse, Peromyscus guardia on Estanque Island, Mexico". Oryx 38 (3): 347–350. doi:10.1017/S0030605304000602.

WWF (2007). Rare dolphin spotted in the Yangtze River. 31 August 2007 (available online). Downloaded on 16 September 2007.

 

Citation: Maas, P.H.J. (2013). Globally Extinct: Mammals. In: TSEW (). The Sixth Extinction. <http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct>. Downloaded on .
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Updated: 28 July 2013

 

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