Globally Extinct: Birds

Laysan CrakeThe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2011.1) shows that at least 1244 of the 9856 living bird species on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction (BirdLife International 2008; IUCN 2010; IUCN 2011). According to the IUCN at least 132 bird species have become extinct since the year 1500 (IUCN 2010; IUCN 2011). It doesn't list any bird subspecies. However, the real situation could be much worse, as 62 bird species are listed as Data Deficient and many as critically endangered (possibly extinct) (IUCN 2010; IUCN 2011).

Photo: A live Laysan Crake or Laysan Rail (Limnocorax palmeri) photographed by Alfred Marshall Bailey in 1913. This photo is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to 1 January 1923.

Do you know any species or subspecies that should be added to this list or has been rediscovered? If so, please contact this website.

 

Species

The subjoined table shows the bird species that recently became globally extinct.

Species (166)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Aegotheles novaezealandiae New Zealand Owlet-nightjar EX NE
Aepyornis maximus Great Elephantbird EX NE
Alectroenas rodericana Rodrigues Pigeon EX EX
Alopecoenas ferruginea Tanna Ground-dove EX EX
Alopecoenas salamonis Thick-billed Ground Dove EX EX
Alopochen kervazoi Réunion Shelduck EX EX
Alopochen mauritianus Mauritian Shelduck EX EX
Amazona martinicana Matinique Amazon EX EX
Amazona violacea Guadeloupe Amazon EX EX
Anas marecula Amsterdam Island Duck EX EX
Anas oustaleti Mariana Mallard EX NE
Anas theodori Mauritian Duck EX EX
Anomalopteryx didiformes Little Bush Moa EX NE
Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Island Bellbird EX EX
Aphanapteryx bonasia Red Rail EX EX
Aphanapteryx leguati Rodrigues Rail EX EX
Aplonis corvina Kusaie Island Starling EX EX
Aplonis fusca Norfolk Starling EX EX
Aplonis mavornata Mysterious Starling EX EX
Aptornis otidiformis North Island Adzebill EX NE
Aptornis defossor South Island Adzebill EX NE
Ara atwoodi Dominican Green-and-Yellow Macaw EX EX
Ara erythrocephala Red-headed Green Macaw EX EX
Ara erythrura Red-tailed Blue-and-Yellow Macaw EX NE
Ara gossei Jamaican Red Macaw EX EX
Ara guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Red Macaw EX EX
Ara martinique Martinique Macaw EX NE
Ara tricolor Cuban Red Macaw EX EX
Aratinga labati Guadeloupe Conure EX EX
Argusianus bipunctatus Double-Banded Argus EX EX
Atlantisia elpenor Ascension Flightless Crake EX EX
Atlantisia podarces St. Helena Crake EX EX
Bowdleria rufescens  Chatham Island Fernbird EX EX
Bullweria bifax St. Helena Bulwer's Petrel EX EX
Cabalus modestus Chatham Island Rail EX EX
Caloenas maculata Liverpool Pigeon EX EX
Camptorhynchus labradorius Labrador Duck EX EX
Capellirallus karamu New Zealand Snipe-rail EX NE
Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Caracara EX EX
Chaetoptila angustipluma Kioea EX EX
Chaunoproctus ferreorostris Bonin Grosbeak EX EX
Chloridops kona Kona Grosbeak EX EX
Chlorostilbon bracei Brace's Emerald EX EX
Chlorostilbon elegans  Gould's Emerald EX EX
Circus eylesi Eyles's Harrier EX NE
Ciridops anna Ula-'Ai-Hawane EX EX
Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island Goose EX NE
Cnemiornis gracilis North Island Goose EX NE
Coenocorypha chathamica Forbes's Snipe EX NE
Columba duboisi Réunion Pigeon EX EX
Columba jouyi Ryukyu Pigeon EX EX
Columba versicolor Bonin Wood Pigeon EX EX
Conuropsis carolinensis Carolina Parakeet EX EX
Corvus antipodum New Zealand Raven EX NE
Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands Raven EX NE
Coturnix novaezelandidae New Zealand Quail EX EX
Coua delalandei Delalande's Coua EX EX
Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea Parakeet EX EX
Cyanoramphus zealandicus Black-fronted Parakeet EX EX
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Hawkin's Rail EX EX
Dinornis novaezealandiae North Island Giant Moa EX NE
Dinornis robustus South Island Giant Moa EX NE
Drepanis funerea Black Mamo EX EX
Drepanis pacifica Hawaii Mamo EX EX
Dromaius ater King Island Emu EX EX
Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island Emu EX EX
Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lanai Hookbill EX EX
Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos St. Helena Dove EX EX
Ectopistes migratorius Passenger Pigeon EX EX
Emeus crassus Eastern Moa EX NE
Euryanas finschi Finsch's Duck EX NE
Euryapteryx curtus Coastal Moa EX NE
Euryapteryx geranoides Stout-legged Moa EX NE
Falco buboisi Réunion Kestrel EX EX
Fregilupus varius Réunion Starling EX EX
Fulica chathamensis Chatham Island Coot EX NE
Fulica newtoni Mascarene Coot EX EX
Fulica prisca New Zealand Coot EX NE
Gallicolumba norfolciensis  Norfolk Island Ground-dove EX EX
Gallinula hodgenorum Hodgens' Waterhen EX NE
Gallinula nesiotis Tristan Moorhen EX EX
Gallirallus dieffenbachii Dieffenbach's Rail EX EX
Gallirallus pacificus Tahiti Rail EX EX
Gallirallus wakensis Wake Island Rail EX EX
Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Gerygone EX EX
Haematopus meadewaldoi Canarian Black Oystercatcher EX EX
Harpagornis moorei Haast's Eagle EX NE
Hemignathus ellisianus Greater Akialoa EX EX
Hemignathus obscurus Lesser Akialoa EX EX
Hemignathus sagittirostris Greater 'Amakihi EX EX
Heliangelus zusii Bogota Sunangel EX DD
Heteralocha acutirostris Huia EX EX
Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand Little Bittern EX EX
Limnocorax monasa Kosrae Crake EX EX
Limnocorax palmeri Laysan Crake EX EX
Limnocorax sandwichensis Hawaiian Crake EX EX
Lophopsittacus bensoni Mauritius Grey Parrot EX EX
Lophopsittacus mauritianus Broad-billed Parrot EX EX
Malacorhynchus scarletti Scarlett's Duck EX NE
Mascarenotus grucheti Réunion Owl EX EX
Mascarenotus murivorus Rodrigues Owl EX EX
Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius Owl EX EX
Mascarinus mascarinus  Mascarene Parrot EX EX
Megadyptes waitaha Waitaha Penguin EX NE
Megalapteryx didinus Upland Moa EX NE
Mergus australis Auckland Island Merganser EX EX
Microgoura meeki Solomon Island Crowned Pigeon EX EX
Moho apicalis O'ahu 'O'o EX EX
Moho bishopi Molokai 'O'o EX EX
Moho braccatus Kaua'i 'O'o EX EX
Moho nobilis Hawai'i 'O'o EX EX
Myadestes myadestinus Kamao EX EX
Myadestes woahensis Amaui EX EX
Myiagra freycineti Guam Flycatcher EX EX
Nannococcyx psix  St. Helena Cuckoo EX EX
Necropsar rodericanus Rodrigues Starling EX EX
Necropsittacus rodericanus Rodrigues Parrot EX EX
Nesillas aldabrana Aldabra Brush-warbler EX EX
Nesoclopeus poecilopterus Bar-winged Rail EX EX
Nestor productus Norfolk Island Kaka EX EX
Nycticorax duboisi Réunion Night-heron EX EX
Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius Night-heron EX EX
Nycticorax megacephalus Rodrigues Night-heron EX EX
Pachyanas chathamica Chatham Island Duck EX NE
Pachyornis australis Crested Moa EX NE
Pachyornis elephantopus Heavy-footed Moa EX NE
Pachyornis mappini Mappin’s Moa EX NE
Paroreomyza flammea Molokai Creeper EX EX
Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues Solitaire EX EX
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Spectacled Cormorant EX EX
Pinguinus impennis Great Auk EX EX
Podiceps andinus Colombian Grebe EX EX
Podilymbus gigas Atitlan Grebe EX EX
Pomarea fluxa Eiao Monarch EX EX
Pomarea mira Ua Pou Monarch EX EX
Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva Monarch EX EX
Pomarea pomarea Maupiti Monarch EX EX
Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Swamphen EX EX
Porphyrio coerulescens  Réunion Gallinule EX EX
Porphyrio kukwiedei New Caledonia Gallinule EX EX
Porphyrio mantelli North Island Takahe EX EX
Porzana astrictocarpus St. Helena Rail EX EX
Porzana nigra Miller's Rail EX EX
Prosobonia ellisi White-winged Sandpiper EX EX
Prosobonia leucoptera Tahitian Sandpiper EX EX
Psephotus pulcherrimus   Paradise Parrot EX EX
Psittacula exsul Newton's Parakeet EX EX
Psittacula wardi Seychelles Parakeet EX EX
Pterodroma rupinarum Large St. helena Petrel EX EX
Ptilinopus mercierii Red-moustached Fruit-dove EX EX
Ptilinopus nitidissimus Mauritius Blue Pigeon EX EX
Quiscalus palustris Slender-billed Grackle EX EX
Raphus cucullatus Dodo EX EX
Rhodacanthis flaviceps Lesser Koa-finch EX EX
Rhodacanthis palmeri Greater Koa-finch EX EX
Sceloglaux albifacies Laughing Owl EX EX
Tachybaptus rufolavatus Alaotra Grebe EX EX
Threskiornis solitarius Réunion Flightless Ibis EX EX
Traversia lyalii Stephens Island Wren EX EX
Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman Thrush EX EX
Turnagra capensis South Island Piopio EX EX
Turnagra tanagra North Island Piopio EX EX
Upupa antaois St. Helena Hoopoe EX EX
Xenicus longipes New Zealand Bush Wren EX EX
Zoothera terrestris Bonin Thrush EX EX
Zosterops strenuus Lord Howe White-eye EX EX

 

Subspecies

The subjoined table shows the bird subspecies that recently became globally extinct.

Subspecies (69)
Scientific Name Common Name TSEW Status IUCN Status
Acrocephalus caffra garretti Huatrine Island Reed Warbler EX NE
Acrocephalus caffra musae Raiatea Long-billed Reed Warbler EX NE
Acrocephalus luscinia astrolabii Astrolabe Nightingale Reed Warbler EX NE
Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris Laysan Millerbird EX NE
Amazona vittata gracilipes Culebra Island Amazon EX NE
Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens Dusky Seaside Sparrow EX NE
Anas georgica niceforoi Niceforo Brown Pintail EX NE
Anas gibberifrons remissa Rennel Island Grey Teal EX NE
Anas strepera couesi Coues's Gadwall EX NE
Aratinga chloroptera maugei Puerto Rican Conure EX NE
Bostrychia olivacea rothschildi Principe Olive Ibis EX NE
Branta canadensis asiatica Bering Canada Goose EX NE
Callaeas cinerea cinerea South Island Kokako EX NE
Canirallus cuvieri abbotti White-throated Rail EX NE
Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori McGregor's House Finch EX NE
Cettia diphone restricta Daito Japanese Bush Warbler EX NE
Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis Little Barrier Snipe EX NE
Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei Stewart Island Snipe EX NE
Columba palumbus maderensis Madeiran Wood Pigeon EX NE
Columba vitiensis godmanae Lord Howe White-throated Pigeon EX NE
Coracina coerulescens altera Cebu Black Greybird EX NE
Coracina coerulescens cebuensis Cebu Barred Greybird EX NE
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis Macquarie Red-fronted Parakeet EX NE
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens Lord Howe Red-fronted Parakeet EX NE
Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmanian Emu EX NE
Empidonax euleri johnstonei Grenada Euler's Flycatcher EX NE
Eulabeornis concolor concolor Jamaican Uniform Crake EX NE
Gallinula nesiotis nesiotis Tristan Island Cock EX NE
Hemignathus lucidus lucidus Oahu Nukupu'u EX NE
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea Norfolk Island Pigeon EX NE
Himatione sanguinea freethi Laysan Honeycreeper EX NE
Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Grand Cayman Oroile EX NE
Lalage leucopyga leucopyga Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller EX NE
Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis Siquijor Hanging Parrot EX NE
Loxigilla portoricensis grandis St. Kitts Puerto Rican Bullfinch EX NE
Melospiza melodia graminea Santa Barbara Song Sparrow EX NE
Moupinia altirostris altirostris Burma Jerdon's Babbler EX NE
Myadestes elisabeth retrusus Isle of Pines Solitaire EX NE
Myadestes obscurus lanaiensis Lanai Thrush EX NE
Myadestes obscurus oahensis Oahu Thrush EX NE
Myadestes obscurus ruthus Molokai Thrush EX NE
Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria Lord Howe Island Boobook Owl EX NE
Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Norfolk Island Boobook Owl EX NE
Paroreomyza montana montana Lanai Creeper EX NE
Parus varius orii Daito Varied Tit EX NE
Pipilo erythrophthalmus consobrinus Guadalupe Rufous-sided Towhee EX NE
Pomarea nigra pomarea Maupiti Flycatcher EX NE
Pomarea nigra tabuensis Tongatabu Flycatcher EX NE
Porzana cinerea brevipes Iwo Jima White-browed Crake EX NE
Psittacula eques eques Réunion Parakeet EX NE
Quiscalus mexicanus palustris Slender-billed Grackle EX NE
Rallus philippensis macquariensis Macquarie Island Banded Rail EX NE
Rhipidura fulignosa cervina Lord Howe Island Fantail EX NE
Salpinctes obsoletus exsul San Benedicto Rock Wren EX NE
Saxicola dacotiae murielae Muriel's Chat EX NE
Speotyto cunicularia amaura Antigua Burrowing Owl EX NE
Speotyto cunicularia guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Burrowing Owl EX NE
Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Ostrich EX NE
Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda Guadelupe Bewick's Wren EX NE
Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys San Clemente Bewick's Wren EX NE
Troglodytes aedon martinicensis Martinique House Wren EX NE
Troglodytes troglodytes orii Daito Wren EX NE
Turdus celaenops yakushimensis Yakushima Seven Island Thrush EX NE
Turdus poliocephalus mareensis Maré Island Thrush EX NE
Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus Norfolk Island Thrush EX NE
Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus Lord Howe Island Thrush EX NE
Tympanuchus cupido cupido Heath Hen EX NE
Zosterops mayottensis semiflava Seychelles Chestnut-flanked White-eye EX NE
Zosterops lateralis tephropleura Lord Howe Island Grey-beaked White-eye EX NE

 

References

BirdLife International (2008). State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

Boyd, J.H. (2011). Taxonomy in Flux Checklist 2.5. <http://www.jboyd.net/Taxo/List.html>. Downloaded on 28 january 2011.

Fuller, E. (2000). Extinct birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 November 2010.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 June 2011.

 

Citation: Maas, P.H.J. (2011). Globally Extinct: Birds. In: TSEW (). The Sixth Extinction Website. <http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct>. Downloaded on .
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Updated: 25 June 2011

 

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